What is Karma?

First off, the Unique and Revolutionary Gurmat of Baabaa Nanak or the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) rejects the Bipar Pujaaree’s Pre-1469 concocted concepts such as the theory of Karma, and related afterlife or After death nonsense!

To impart the Truth (ਸਚ) and Awaken our Conscience from the slumber of pre-1469 nonsense, all 35 writers in the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS) have used terms that were already within the use and within the psyche of people of their time.

However, these terms — e.g. ‘Karma’ etc. — have been used in the SGGS as examples (ਹਵਾਲਾ), but explicitly with new meanings and understanding to fit the new spiritual paradigms of Sikhi or Gurmat Wisdom of the SGGS.

In the Gurmat GiaanWisdom of SGGS, the term ‘Karma’ appears with the meaning ‘action’, Dhaarmic Karamkaand (rituals), and grace or Nadar (‘Karam’ from Farsi language). But it has nothing to do with ‘Kismat‘ or afterlife concocted narratives of the Pujaaree.

The Gurmat Wisdom of the SGGS Teaches us that both the ‘poison‘ and ‘Amrit‘ are present within the human mind.

‘Poison’, in a nutshell, is our mind’s hunger for Maya or Bikaar (i.e. lust, anger, greed, attachment, pride and their numerous variations).

Amrit‘, in a nutshell, is Naam or the Divine Virtues — Truth (ਸਤ), Wisdom (ਗਿਆਨ), Godly contentment (ਸੰਤੋਖ), mercy (ਦਯਾ), patience (ਧੀਰਜ), Sahaj (ਸਹਜ-Natural State of Being), honesty (ਇਮਾਨਦਾਰੀ), humility (ਮਨ ਨਿਮਾਣਾ, ਬੁਧਿ ਗਰੀਬੀ), sweet speech (ਮਿਠ ਬੋਲੜਾ), and so on.

The SGGS teaches its Sikhs (learners, seekers-ਸਿਖਿਆਰਥੀ) that ‘Kartaar’ (One Creator, Universal Creative Energy, Hukam…) has attached two fruits to this world-tree — ‘poison’ and ‘Amrit’.

  • ਬਿਖੁ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਕਰਤਾਰਿ ਉਪਾਏ ॥ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਬਿਰਖ ਕਉ ਦੁਇ ਫਲ ਲਾਏ ॥: Poison (-Maya, which brings spiritual death) and Amrit (-Naam, which gives spiritual life) are created by the Kartaar. These two fruits have been attached to the world-tree. (sggs 1172).

Hence, both ‘poison’ and ‘Amrit’ are within all of us.

Allthough both ‘poison’ or ‘Amrit‘ are present within, but whether to choose ‘poison’ or ‘Amrit’ is one’s personal decision or choice (ਇਨਸਾਨ ਦੀ ਅਪਣੀ ਮਰਜੀ).

However once the choice is made, the results or consequences are CERTAIN to follow. None can get away from the results of choices he/she makes. Also, None can blame ‘Kismat‘, but only yourself! The SGGS Teaches us to make your own ‘Kismat‘.

  • ਕਰਿ ਕਰਿ ਕਰਣਾ ਲਿਖਿ ਲੈ ਜਾਹੁ ॥ ਆਪੇ ਬੀਜਿ ਆਪੇ ਹੀ ਖਾਹੁ ॥: (The Internal cleansing is by a spirituality of) Internalizing (the Naam: Shabad, Hukam, Virtues, Giaan-Wisdom) through sustained deeds. Whatever you sow, you will reap. (sggs 4).
  • ਜੋ ਮੈ ਕੀਆ ਸੋ ਮੈ ਪਾਇਆ ਦੋਸੁ ਨ ਦੀਜੈ ਅਵਰ ਜਨਾ ॥: Whatever I do, the similar fruit I get (rewards, result etc.), don’t blame others! (sggs 433).
  • ਜੈਸਾ ਕੀਚੈ ਤੈਸੋ ਪਾਈਐ ॥ : (Hukam or the System-Rule-Law of Nature is such that) one reaps the fruits of one’s deeds (Here and Now). ||8|| (sggs 1028).
  • ਦਿਨੁ ਰਾਤਿ ਕਮਾਇਅੜੋ ਸੋ ਆਇਓ ਮਾਥੈ ॥: Day and night what you have done (good and bad) becomes a fortune on your forehead or mind (i.e. ‘Kismat’, luck, ਭਾਗ etc.). (sggs 461).
  • ਜੇਹਾ ਬੀਜੈ ਸੋ ਲੁਣੈ ਕਰਮਾ ਸੰਦੜਾ ਖੇਤੁ ॥: (Life is the) field (of man’s actions); whatever (he) sows or does in life so does (he) reap the consequences. (sggs 134).

Why is it so? The Gurbani (SGGS) asserts there is a spontaneous play of the Divine Hukam — System-Rule-Law-Order of Nature. NONE can escape it!

  • ਹੁਕਮੈ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਸਭੁ ਕੋ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਹੁਕਮ ਨ ਕੋਇ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਹੁਕਮੈ ਜੇ ਬੁਝੈ ਤ ਹਉਮੈ ਕਹੈ ਨ ਕੋਇ ॥੨॥ : Everyone is subject to the Creator’s Hukam (System-Rule-Law-Order of Nature), none is outside of His Hukam. Nanak, If one Realizes His Hukam Within, then one does not behave egotistically — upon Realizing the Hukam within, false perception that I exist outside of His Hukam ceases to be. ॥2॥ (sggs 1).

In short, mind is the only perception, and perception is movement in consciousness. The expression of this movement is action (Karma), followed by fruition (ਫਲ-result).

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਹੁਕਮੁ ਬੁਝਿ ਪਰਵਾਣੁ ਹੋਇ ਤਾ ਫਲੁ ਪਾਵੈ ਸਚੁ ॥: O Nanak! By understanding the Hukam (System-Rule-Law of Nature), man becomes acceptable and then obtains the true fruit (or Results). (sggs 509).

In other words, there is no division between the mind and action (Karma). Before it’s projected as action it arises in the mind. Baabaa Nanak says:

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਮਨ ਕੇ ਕੰਮ ਫਿਟਿਆ ਗਣਤ ਨ ਆਵਹੀ ॥: O Nanak! Wicked are actions of the mind, (these actions of the mind) cannot be counted (sggs 789).
  • ਮਨੂਆ ਡੋਲੈ ਦੂਤ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਮਿਲਿ ਸੋ ਪਾਏ ਜੋ ਕਿਛੁ ਕੀਨਾ ਹੇ ॥੭॥: Keeping company with passions (lust, anger, greed, etc.), the mind wavers; and obtains (the fruit – ਫਲ) of its actions. ||7|| (sggs 1028).

Whatever the mind thinks of, the organs of action strive to materialize. Hence, again, the mind is Karma (action). — the two are like the flower and its scent. Before it is projected as action it arises in the mind. Hence, actions are the louder expressions of thoughts. When such actions come to an end, the ceasing of mind’s desires, thoughts-stuff, imaginations, fancies, Phurne etc. also come to an end.

Actions cease to be when the mind’s wanderings stop!

Such mind is called ‘conquered, annihilated, killed or ‘frozen‘ in the Gurbani. Conquering the mind or the world simply means to go beyond one’s own worldly consciousness or material nature — Manmukh-nature, Saakat-nature, Mayadhaaree Mindset.

In other words, when the mind sees itself as Jot Saroop, the material world (Jagg or Jagat, Maya, Bhav Saagar) is said to have been conquered! This victory brings Bliss, Peace, Happiness, Joy, release from the reactionary actions…

  • ਮਨੁ ਜੀਤੇ ਜਗੁ ਜੀਤਿਆ ਜਾਂ ਤੇ ਬਿਖਿਆ ਤੇ ਹੋਇ ਉਦਾਸੁ ॥੨॥: Conquering the mind is (as if) the world is conquered, (because, only by conquering the mind, one can remain) detached from Maya. (sggs 1103).

But, what is mind?

Ocean with depth gets calmer and quiet. However, violent waves arise at its surface due to disturbances created by the wind. Stronger the wind, stronger the disturbance and higher the waves at the surface. If there is no wind, there will be no waves. Similarly, mind is nothing but waves on the surface of the Ocean of Pure Awareness (Mool).

Disturbance or waves created by Maya (illusion) subside when there is no confusion between Reality and appearance!

In deluded or restless state, when the mind is veiled by doubt (Bharam) and two-ness, etc., the same consciousness views diversity and identifies as such, it’s known as the mind. In nutshell, the mind is just thoughts-stuff (Phurne-ਫੁਰਨੇ). In other words, Karma is the Louder expressions of thoughts.

When the mind is firmly established in the conviction of a certain perception it is known as intellect (Budhi).

  • ਮਨ ਕਾ ਕਹਿਆ ਮਨਸਾ ਕਰੈ ॥: Budhi follows the order of the mind (sggs 832).

The SGGS says the intellect must Awakened to Wisdom. When the mind ignorantly and foolishly identifies itself as separate from its Mool, it is known as false ego-sense (Haumai). When it abandons unbroken Shabad-Vichaar, it allows itself to play with ego-centric fancies or imaginations (Phurne). It is known as individualized consciousness.

Thus, when untainted Awareness in a moment of self-forgetfulness viewed itself as the object of perception, countless concepts arise. Our lives are full of concepts. If we like particular concepts, we pass them on to others around us or ram them down their throat.

Activities arising from the false concepts are also false. If the cause is wrong, then the effect must automatically be wrong as well.

Baabaa Nanak says this mind is not only ‘Karma’ but also ‘Dharma‘!

  • ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਕਰਮਾ ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਧਰਮਾ ॥: This mind is ‘Karma’, and this mind is ‘Dharma’ (sggs 415).

Established in the spirituality of the Shabad, when the mind acts through the undivided consciousness, it’s ‘Dharma‘. Such unconditioned mind is free of the ignorance-born tendencies or ego-centric desires.

Although mind’s Original Nature is Jot Saroop, but on account of its delusion the mind inebriated in Maya punishes itself by its own tendencies. As a result, the mind restlessly ‘wanders in ten directions’.

  • ਧਾਇਓ ਰੇ ਮਨ ਦਹ ਦਿਸ ਧਾਇਓ ॥: (Inebriated in Maya) this mind wanders in ten directions. (sggs 712).

To put it otherwise, when the mind is conscious of Truth (Sach-ਸਚ), it’s established in Wisdom.

On the other hand, when it moves in the wrong direction towards greater forgetfulness (of its Mool) and deeper involvement in fancies, then becomes tainted and behaves as deluded.

  • ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਧੰਧੈ ਬਾਂਧਾ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਇ ॥: Entangled in worldly affairs (Maya), this mind creates Karma (sggs 1176).
  • ਮਨੁ ਭੂਲੋ ਬਹੁ ਚਿਤੈ ਵਿਕਾਰੁ ॥ : The misled mind thinks much of perversion (Bikaar: lust, anger, greed, etc.). (sggs 222).

In short, it’s the same mind that can take one to his Mool (Source, Jot Saroop…), and it’s the same mind that can take one away from his Mool too!

Clearly, the mind is responsible for our material bondage, as well as our Liberation from it. Trapped in bondage, we do not let go Haumai (false ego-sense) and its devastating faults.

  • ਜਿਉ ਕਪਿ ਕੇ ਕਰ ਮੁਸਟਿ ਚਨਨ ਕੀ ਲੁਬਧਿ ਨ ਤਿਆਗੁ ਦਇਓ ॥ ਜੋ ਜੋ ਕਰਮ ਕੀਏ ਲਾਲਚ ਸਿਉ ਤੇ ਫਿਰਿ ਗਰਹਿ ਪਰਿਓ ॥੧॥: Like the monkey with a handful of grains (in the narrow-necked pot – ਦਾਣਿਆਂ ਦੀ ਭਰੀ ਹੋਈ ਮੁੱਠ) will not let go (grains) because of greed (even he knows he is trapped!) – (just so), all the deeds committed in greed ultimately become a noose around neck (more trapped in Maya). (sggs 336).

In nutshell, wicked mind = wicked Soch (thinking) = wicked Karma.
And, pious mind = pious Soch (thinking) = pious Karma.

Four things are common in nonhuman animals and a sense-blind human having an unhealthy or empty mind: eating, sleeping, mating, and defending.

Mayaic mind infatuated with vices or Bikaar is not only restless, it also behaves and lives like animals while alive (ਪਸੂ ਵਿਰਤੀ-animal nature) — functions primarily on instinct, not much reasoning or discernment (Bibek Budh).

In nutshell, separation from Truth (Sach, the One Creator) = Animal-Joon-Life-nature

  • ਕਰਤੂਤਿ ਪਸੂ ਕੀ ਮਾਨਸ ਜਾਤਿ ॥ ਲੋਕ ਪਚਾਰਾ ਕਰੈ ਦਿਨੁ ਰਾਤਿ ॥ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਭੇਖ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਮਲੁ ਮਾਇਆ ॥ ਛਪਸਿ ਨਾਹਿ ਕਛੁ ਕਰੈ ਛਪਾਇਆ ॥: Although; human in name or creed, but actions are that of animalistic nature. But day and night he exhibits or shows off to people (that he is a human – ਬੰਦਾ)! Outside (on his body) he wears religious dress but in his mind is the filth of Maya. However he cannot conceal the filth of his mind with (outwardly wearing religious robes, cunningness, pleasing people etc.). (sggs 267).
  • ਪਸੂ ਮਿਲਹਿ ਚੰਗਿਆਈਆ ਖੜੁ ਖਾਵਹਿ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਦੇਹਿ ॥ ਨਾਮ ਵਿਹੂਣੇ ਆਦਮੀ ਧ੍ਰਿਗੁ ਜੀਵਣ ਕਰਮ ਕਰੇਹਿ ॥੩॥: (Even though humans are known to be superior to animals, birds, etc., but) beasts have merits, as they eat grass and give milk. Without the Naam (Truth, Wisdom, Virtues…), the mortal’s life is cursed, (because forgetting Naam) they perform (worthless) actions. ||3|| (sggs 489).
  • ਮਾਣਸ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਕਰਣੀ ਕੁਤਾ ਦਰਿ ਫੁਰਮਾਨੁ ॥: O Nanak! A human being is a human in shape and name only; (but) by conduct he is a dog (greedy, selfish, corrupt, etc.) – this is the Divine edict. (sggs 350).
  • ਬਿਨੁ ਸਿਮਰਨ ਕੂਕਰ ਹਰਕਾਇਆ ॥ ਸਾਕਤ ਲੋਭੀ ਬੰਧੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਆ ॥੬॥: Without remembrance (of Wisdom, Virtues..), one is like a mad dog. The greedy Saakat (one separated from the Truth) falls into entanglements ||6|| (sggs 239).

So, Bhagat Kabeer Jee reminds us that ‘Whatever is done, is done by the mind’ (‘ਜੋ ਕਿਛੁ ਕੀਆ ਸੋ ਮਨ ਕੀਆ’). For example, when the mind knowingly commits mistakes, then it reaps the fruit of its Karma accordingly:

  • ਕਬੀਰ ਮਨੁ ਜਾਨੈ ਸਭ ਬਾਤ ਜਾਨਤ ਹੀ ਅਉਗਨੁ ਕਰੈ ॥: O Kabeer! The mind knows everything and knowingly it commits demerits (sggs 1376).

Also, actions (Karma) themselves are limited being within the framework of time and space. Actions are also said to be inert since without a sentient being, no action is possible

The doer of actions is also limited within the framework of time, space, System-Rule-Law of Nature etc. Consequently, a mortal cannot create the result (ਫਲ) of action.

If the mortal is independent in creating results, then NONE would get UNDESIRED results!

Hukam (System-Rule-Law of Nature, ਨਿਯਮ, ਕੁਦਰਤ ਦਾ ਵਿਧਾਨ) is responsible for results. Also Hukam is impartial. If all its requirements are fulfilled, results of actions are obtained.

  • ਸਚਾ ਤੇਰਾ ਹੁਕਮੁ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਜਾਣਿਆ ॥ ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਆਪੁ ਗਵਾਇ ਸਚੁ ਪਛਾਣਿਆ ॥: Your Hukam (System-Rule-Law of Nature, ਨਿਯਮ…) is Permanently in Existence (i.e. Hukam cannot be changed or violated); this is the Guru’s Realization. The Recognition or Realization (that the Creator / Hukam is Permanently in Existence) comes through the Gurmat (Giaan or Wisdom of the SGGG) removing Haumai (false ego-sense, ਖ਼ੁਦੀ). (sggs 144).

For example, for a man and a woman to have a child, they need to fulfill all the requirements. In order to reap a good harvest, the farmer has to fulfill all the requirements. If a person eats like a pig, he is bound to get indigestion or sick!

  • ਆਪਿ ਬੀਜਿ ਆਪੇ ਹੀ ਖਾਇ ॥: As we plant, so we harvest and eat (sggs 25).
  • ਫਰੀਦਾ ਲੋੜੈ ਦਾਖ ਬਿਜਉਰੀਆਂ ਕਿਕਰਿ ਬੀਜੈ ਜਟੁ ॥: O Fareed! The farmer plants acacia trees (ਕਿਕਰਾਂ), and wishes for Bijouree grapes! (sggs 1379).

Fittingly, the Gurmat Wisdom of the SGGS says that people without Giaan-Wisdom are plundered. And it’s only the Wisdom that can stabilize the false intellect of the mind.

  • ਕੁੰਭੇ ਬਧਾ ਜਲੁ ਰਹੈ ਜਲ ਬਿਨੁ ਕੁੰਭੁ ਨ ਹੋਇ ॥ ਗਿਆਨ ਕਾ ਬਧਾ ਮਨੁ ਰਹੈ ਗੁਰ ਬਿਨੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨ ਹੋਇ ॥੫॥: As the water remains confined in a pitcher, (just so) the mind is restrained by the Spiritual Wisdom. But (as) the pitcher cannot be shaped without the water, (just so) there can be no Spiritual Wisdom without the Guru. ||5|| (sggs 469).
  • ਝੂਠੀ ਮਨ ਕੀ ਮਤਿ ਹੈ ਕਰਣੀ ਬਾਦਿ ਬਿਬਾਦੁ ॥: (When) the mind’s Wisdom is false, its deed is useless and leads to conflict. (sggs 1343).
  • ਮਨ ਸਮਝਾਵਨ ਕਾਰਨੇ ਕਛੂਅਕ ਪੜੀਐ ਗਿਆਨ ॥੫॥: To instruct the mind one ought to study Knowledge to some extent. ||5|| (sggs 340).


  1. Thanks Prince Ji!

    In the SGGS, there is the instruction for the mind to get established in the Turiya Avasthaa and Chauthaa Pada (Fourth State) — Aatmak Avasthaa (ਆਤਮਕ ਅਵਸਥਾ) beyond the influence of the three qualities of Maya. For example:
    • ਮਨ ਰੇ ਤ੍ਰੈ ਗੁਣ ਛੋਡਿ ਚਉਥੈ ਚਿਤੁ ਲਾਇ ॥ (sggs 603).

  2. Mind is nothing but waves(Awake,Dream,D Sleep) on the surface of the Ocean of Pure Awareness(Turiya)……but ocean is never still, can it be compared to 4th state,,,TURIYA ?

  3. Thanks Veerji for your auspisious replies and suggestions. Your Blog is so knowledgable and Divine that it must be helping many like us.

    Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh

  4. Thank you Bhai Sahib Ji .

    The Gurbani (SGGS) speaks at the level of the mind or soul.

    Accordingly, throughout the SGGS, we are asked to mend our mind, that is, change our thinking (Soch-ਸੋਚ).

    Because it’s one’s thinking that translates into actions (Karma), behavior, conduct….

    Further, the Gurbani’s Parmaatam is NOT vengeful or partial. He is without animosity (“Nirvair”), Merciful. In fact Actions Are The Louder Expressions Of Thoughts.
    Then why some are closer to Him and some or not?

    The Gurbani says it because of one’s own “Karanee” (conduct, Kartoot (ਕਰਤੂਤ), Aacharn (ਆਚਰਨ), Aachaar (ਆਚਾਰ), behavior, performance, action or deed (ਕਿ੍ਯਾ, ਕਰਮ, ਕੰਮ)…).
    • ਕਰਮੀ ਆਪੋ ਆਪਣੀ ਕੇ ਨੇੜੈ ਕੇ ਦੂਰਿ ॥: Karamee aapo aapanee ke nerrai ke doori (sggs 8).

    Thus each one of us is responsible for his/her own actions.

    If kill somebody, I cannot tell judge that God told me to do so. Can I? That will be a total nonsense. If I do misdeed, I must regret it later (“ਪਛੁਤਾਣੀ- Pachhutaanee” ). So, I better not kill somebody!

    Here is the Gurbani’s edict:
    • ਜੋ ਮੈ ਕੀਆ ਸੋ ਮੈ ਪਾਇਆ ਦੋਸੁ ਨ ਦੀਜੈ ਅਵਰ ਜਨਾ ॥: Jo mai keeaa so mai paaiaa… (sggs 433).
    • ਕਰਮੀ ਆਪੋ ਆਪਣੀ ਆਪੇ ਪਛੁਤਾਣੀ ॥: Karmee aapo aapanee aapae Pachhutaanee (sggs 315).

    Hence, through the Gur-Giaan (Divine Knowledge, Spiritual Wisdom, Aatam-Giaan, Gurmat, Shabad-Vichaar …), the Gurbani urges us to build the fence of true Dharma around.

    For my personal answer to your inquiry (instead of repeating myself), my suggestion is please re-read my article again and also all my replies again. Everything you read on this site is based on my understanding of the Gurbani.

    If you still have doubt, my conviction is one should read Gurbani himself, and try to understand its deeper meaning — NOT SUPERFICIAL meaning. When we understand the true meanings of the Gurbani, it stretches the mind and opens it up.

  5. Thanks T.Singh Veerji and Prakash S Bagga Veerji
    for your kind replies over my above stated doubt, in continuation to the discussion, I want to more elaborate my doubt to get its full flash resolve.
    Bhai Saabji, I am getting confused with the word free will of performing actions/any karma, free will says we are free to perform our desired actions, but this is not true every time as I asked in my above comment in many circumstances in our life we want to do some good things may be for society or for our personal relatives (father, mother, sister or anyone who are in need) but we are not able to do so (due to our own limitations social, financial, or any other personal) and we feel our hands are bound to perform good deeds/karma or actions, then WHO is responsible for that as again these are external factors which are holding us to perform good Karmas and similarly we all should accept and say this also that sometimes we go to do some good but happens something bad.
    WHY is this so, as this cannot be our Free Will, and if we are not able to perform our actions freely then how they are labelled as Good or Bad as I am acting always under effect of some external cosmic power.

    I am having much Respect and Shraddha for Gurbani as it is the true Light in Universe.
    But these real life questions deviates me many times and I got confused again and again with my small mind.

    Please try to understand the intent behind my question as in words we cannot explain the complete emotions.
    Looking for reply from everyone who finds its answer useful.

    Sat Sri Akal

  6. Thank you Bhai Sahib Ji for the quote.

    The Gur-Shabad you quoted above gives us an inspiration (impetus, ਪਰੇਰਣਾ) to abide by the Law Of Nature (HUKAM, BHAANAA…). In other words it’s giving an impetus (ਪਰੇਰਣਾ) to become Hukamee Bandaa (ਹੁਕਮੀ ਬੰਦਾ)!

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