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Gurbani Pilgrimage, Ablutions Tirath-Teerath

Teerath Yaatraa – Pilgrimage

First thing first, Teerath Yaatraa (also spelt Tirath or Tirth Yatra – ਤੀਰਥ ਯਾਤਰਾ ) is repudiated in the Gurmat (Wisdom, Upadesh or Way of the Sri Guru Granth Sahib, SGGS)

The SGGS does not ask us to wander around these places! To the contrary, the SGGS strongly urges us NOT to!

The Gurbani says the external Teerath are traps to enslave human minds

Bhagat Kabeer Sahib tells us that there is a trap to catch elephants, a trap to catch monkeys, a trap to catch parrots, and so on. Bhagat Kabeer Sahib warns us that similarly there is are traps to catch the crazy human minds –  many Teerath locations, many gods…

  • ਕਾਲਬੂਤ ਕੀ ਹਸਤਨੀ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਚਲਤੁ ਰਚਿਓ ਜਗਦੀਸ ॥ ਕਾਮ ਸੁਆਇ ਗਜ ਬਸਿ ਪਰੇ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਅੰਕਸੁ ਸਹਿਓ ਸੀਸ ॥੧॥ ਬਿਖੈ ਬਾਚੁ ਹਰਿ ਰਾਚੁ ਸਮਝੁ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ॥ ਨਿਰਭੈ ਹੋਇ ਨ ਹਰਿ ਭਜੇ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਗਹਿਓ ਨ ਰਾਮ ਜਹਾਜੁ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ ਮਰਕਟ ਮੁਸਟੀ ਅਨਾਜ ਕੀ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਲੀਨੀ ਹਾਥੁ ਪਸਾਰਿ ॥ ਛੂਟਨ ਕੋ ਸਹਸਾ ਪਰਿਆ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਨਾਚਿਓ ਘਰ ਘਰ ਬਾਰਿ ॥੨॥ ਜਿਉ ਨਲਨੀ ਸੂਅਟਾ ਗਹਿਓ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਮਾਯਾ ਇਹੁ ਬਿਉਹਾਰੁ ॥ ਜੈਸਾ ਰੰਗੁ ਕਸੁੰਭ ਕਾ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਤਿਉ ਪਸਰਿਓ ਪਾਸਾਰੁ ॥੩॥ ਨਾਵਨ ਕਉ ਤੀਰਥ ਘਨੇ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਪੂਜਨ ਕਉ ਬਹੁ ਦੇਵ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਕਬੀਰ ਛੂਟਨੁ ਨਹੀ ਮਨ ਬਉਰਾ ਰੇ ਛੂਟਨੁ ਹਰਿ ਕੀ ਸੇਵ ॥੪॥੧॥੬॥੫੭॥: Like the straw figure of a female elephant, fashioned to trap the bull elephant, O crazy mind, the Lord of the Universe has staged the drama of this world. Attracted by the lure of sexual desire, the elephant is captured, O crazy mind, and now the halter is placed around its neck. ||1|| So escape from corruption and immerse yourself in the Lord; take this advice, O crazy mind. You have not meditated fearlessly on the Lord, O crazy mind; you have not embarked upon the Lord’s Boat. ||1||Pause|| O crazy mind! The monkey stretches out his hand (into the narrow-necked pot), and takes a handful of grains; now unable to escape (since his hand is full of grains, he cannot take his hand out of the narrow-necked pot and escape. Because of greed, he will not let go of the grabbed grains – ਦਾਣਿਆਂ ਦੀ ਭਰੀ ਹੋਈ ਮੁੱਠ). O crazy mind! (because of his greed, now) he is made to dance door to door ||2|| Like the parrot caught in the trap, O crazy mind, you trapped by the affairs of Maya. Like the weak dye of the safflower, O crazy mind, so is the expanse of this world of form and substance. ||3|| O crazy mind! There are so many places of pilgrimage in which to bathe, and so many gods to worship. Says Kabeer! O crazy mind, there is no liberation like this; only by serving Hari (Mool) will you find liberation (from doubt, Maya…). ||4||1||6||57|| (sggs 335).

Then, as per the Gurbani, what is considered Teerath (place of pilgrimage, holy spot, etc.)? According to the Gurbani — not according to the fool-o-sophy — the true Teerath in the Gurmat is said to be the Naam.

  • ਤੀਰਥੁ ਹਮਰਾ ਹਰਿ ਕੋ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਗੁਰਿ ਉਪਦੇਸਿਆ ਤਤੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: The Hari Naam is my Teerath. The Guru has instructed me in this True Essence of spiritual Wisdom (Aatmic-Giaan; ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਸੂਝ ਦਾ ਇਹ ਨਿਚੋੜ – ਗਿਆਨ). ||1||Pause|| (sggs 1142).
  • ਤੀਰਥਿ ਨਾਵਣ ਜਾਉ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ॥ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਸਬਦ ਬੀਚਾਰੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ॥: Go bathe at the Teerath, (and that Teerath is) the Naam-Teerath. To Reflect on the Shabad (Shabad-Vichaar…) is the Teerath, (because of this) Spiritual Wisdom arises within (sggs 687).
  • ਆਠ ਪਹਰ ਸਿਮਰਹੁ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਅਨਿਕ ਤੀਰਥ ਮਜਨੁ ਇਸਨਾਨੁ ॥: Aath pahar simarahu prabh Naamu… (sggs 184).

Where is this Teerath of the Gurbani located?

Baabaa Nanak made it very clear in the outset of the SGGS that this Teerath is located within. And we must go within and cleanse ourselves in this Inner Teerath.

  • ਸੁਣਿਆ ਮੰਨਿਆ ਮਨਿ ਕੀਤਾ ਭਾਉ ॥ ਅੰਤਰਗਤਿ ਤੀਰਥਿ ਮਲਿ ਨਾਉ ॥: (A person who by connecting his consciousness to Naam) listens to it,  believes it, and loves it in his mind, (know that,  that person) has thoroughly bathed in the Teerath within (i.e., he has cleansed his mind by linking with the Gur-Giaan or Wisdom). (sggs 4).
  • ਤੀਰਥੁ ਸਬਦ ਬੀਚਾਰੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ॥: To Reflect on the Shabad (Shabad-Vichaar…) is the Teerath (because of this) Spiritual Wisdom arises within (sggs 687).

Then why do many (educated and uneducated alike) wander around at the external places called Teerath?

Again, according to the Gurbani, these people are Manmukh, ridden by doubt (ਭਰਮਾ ਦੇ ਪੱਟੇ ਹੋਏ), corrupt minded, Mayadhaaree (mammon worshipers),ridden by Haumai (egoistic), greedy (who have reduced the Gurbani to a mere mundane business), Karamkaandee, those ignorant of the Gurbani’s true Giaan or Wisdom…

  • ਭਰਮੇ ਭੂਲਾ ਸਭਿ ਤੀਰਥ ਗਹੈ ॥: Deluded by doubt (he) visits all Teerath (external shrines of pilgrimage). (sggs 948).
  • ਮਨ ਕਾ ਝੂਠਾ ਝੂਠੁ ਕਮਾਵੈ ॥ ਮਾਇਆ ਨੋ ਫਿਰੈ ਤਪਾ ਸਦਾਵੈ ॥ ਭਰਮੇ ਭੂਲਾ ਸਭਿ ਤੀਰਥ ਗਹੈ ॥: The man of false mind practices falsehood. He runs after Maya, and yet pretends to be Tapaa (a devotee, a hermit, a recluse, etc.)… (sggs 1142).
  • ਜਿਸੁ ਜੀਉ ਅੰਤਰੁ ਮੈਲਾ ਹੋਇ ॥ ਤੀਰਥ ਭਵੈ ਦਿਸੰਤਰ ਲੋਇ ॥: Jisu jiou antaru mailaa hoi. Teerath bhavai disantar loi (sggs 1169).

Although ladles (ਕੜਛੀਆ) cruise through all sorts of food, but they do not know the relish of food – they just remain empty of it! Similarly, those who wander at the external Teerath have no clue as to what the Gur-Shabad (SGGS) is saying. It’s the mind’s hunger for Maya that makes many roam around; for Maya itself is “Dolanee” like wind (“ਡੋਲਨੀ”-that wavers, roams, wanders, ਜੋ ਟਿਕਦੀ ਨਹੀ…).

How can we all realize the Teerath within as commanded by the SGGS?

Again, according to the Gurbani, the True Teerath within can be realized through the Spiritual Wisdom (Aatam-Giaan) cultivated through the earnest Shabad-Vichhar.

  • ਤੀਰਥੁ ਸਬਦ ਬੀਚਾਰੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ॥: To Reflect on the Shabad (Shabad-Vichaar…) is the Teerath (because of this) Spiritual Wisdom arises within (sggs 687).
  • ਗੁਰਦੇਵ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਰੋਵਰੁ ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨ ਮਜਨੁ ਅਪਰੰਪਰਾ ॥: The Gurdev is the Teerath, and the pool of Amrit; bathing in the Guru-wisdom, one experiences the Infinite. (sggs 262).
  • ਅੰਤਰਿ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਦੀਆ ਬੁਝਾਇ ॥ ਮੈਲੁ ਗਈ ਮਨੁ ਨਿਰਮਲੁ ਹੋਆ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਰਿ ਤੀਰਥਿ ਨਾਇ ॥: Deep within is the sacred shrine (Teerath) of Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom…), which the Satigur has revealed. Bathing in (this Teerath), the pool of Amrit, filth of the mind (filth of Bikaars…) is removed and it becomes pure. (sggs 587).

Thus, we are time and again reminded by the Gurbani that all pilgrimages or Teerath are in the Divine Naam (Gur-Shabad, Hukam, Wisdom of the Gurbani…), through which one by becoming the Gurmukh realizes the “sixty-eight” places of pilgrimage within his own Heart — Aatam-Teerath.

  • ਸਚਾ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਜਿਤੁ ਸਤ ਸਰਿ ਨਾਵਣੁ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਆਪਿ ਬੁਝਾਏ ॥ ਅਠਸਠਿ ਤੀਰਥ ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਦਿਖਾਏ ਤਿਤੁ ਨਾਤੈ ਮਲੁ ਜਾਏ ॥: By becoming the Gurmukh oneself, understand as to what the True Teerath is and in which to bathe. Gur-Shabad shows the sixty-eight sacred shrines of pilgrimage (within the Gur-Shabad); bathing in (this Teerath of the Gur-Shabad or Gur-Wisdom), filth is washed away (i.e., inner filth of Bikaar…). (sggs 753).
  • ਸਚੁ ਤਾਂ ਪਰੁ ਜਾਣੀਐ ਜਾ ਆਤਮ ਤੀਰਥਿ ਕਰੇ ਨਿਵਾਸੁ ॥: One knows the Truth (ਅਸਲੇ ਦੀ ਸਮਝ) only when he dwells in the sacred shrine of pilgrimage of his own Soul within (sggs 468).
  • ਪੰਚ ਭੂ ਆਤਮਾ ਵਸਿ ਕਰਹਿ ਤਾ ਤੀਰਥ ਕਰਹਿ ਨਿਵਾਸੁ ॥੨॥: If you overcome the mind (born of) five elements (material nature or Maya), then you will come to have a home at the true place of pilgrimage-Aatmaan (soul). ||2||  (sggs 491).

This little story attributed to Bhagat Kabeer Sahib highlights the emptiness of Teerath Yaatraa and bathing there. It goes something like this: A disciple of Bhagat Kabeer Sahib asked his permission for visiting pilgrim places and taking ritual bath in their so-called holy rivers and ponds (Srovars). Kabeer gave his disciple a gourd and asked: “Please bathe this gourd wherever you bathe”. The disciple did exactly that — wherever he bathed in the so-called holy waters of Teerath places, he also bathed the gourd. Upon his returning from the pilgrimage, he gave the gourd back to Bhagat Kabeer Sahib. In turn, Kabeer Sahib handed it over to the cook in charge of the kitchen with the following instructions: “Please cook this gourd and serve it with the next meal to all devotees”. So he did. However, as we know that the gourd is poisonously bitter, no one could eat it. Kabeer wanted to make the point to his deluded and immature student that, as the gourd did not shed its bitterness by bathing at all of the so-called holy places, similarly, the mental filth cannot be washed off by any type of external ablution. This is the Gurbani’s edict. The outer mind is like an oily rag, which can only be cleansed with the Water of the Divine Naam within — the Inner bodily Pool or “Sarovar“.

  • ਨਾਵਣ ਚਲੇ ਤੀਰਥੀ ਮਨਿ ਖੋਟੈ ਤਨਿ ਚੋਰ ॥ ਇਕੁ ਭਾਉ ਲਥੀ ਨਾਤਿਆ ਦੁਇ ਭਾ ਚੜੀਅਸੁ ਹੋਰ ॥ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਧੋਤੀ ਤੂਮੜੀ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਵਿਸੁ ਨਿਕੋਰ ॥ ਸਾਧ ਭਲੇ ਅਣਨਾਤਿਆ ਚੋਰ ਸਿ ਚੋਰਾ ਚੋਰ ॥੨॥: (People of) evil mind and thievish bodies (body occupied with thieves like lust, anger, greed, etc.), go to bathe at the pilgrim places. The one part of their bodily filth (external filth) is washed off by bathing, but they accumulate twice as much (of mental filth – pride, ego…). (It’s like a gourd) a gourd may be washed off on the outside, but on the inside, it remains filled with poison (i.e., bitterness…). Pious or virtuous beings are blessed, even without such bathing (at pilgrim places – ਤੀਰਥਾਂ ਤੇ), while thieves remain thieves, no matter how much they bathe (at pilgrim places – ਤੀਰਥਾਂ ਤੇ) ||2|| (sggs 789).
  • ਬਹੁ ਤੀਰਥ ਭਵਿਆ ॥ ਤੇਤੋ ਲਵਿਆ ॥ ਬਹੁ ਭੇਖ ਕੀਆ ਦੇਹੀ ਦੁਖੁ ਦੀਆ ॥…: The more one wanders at Teerath the more one talks uselessly (in ego, he goes around telling others that he has visited this Teerath or that Teerath). The more one wears religious robes, the more pain he causes his body. (sggs 467).
  • ਜਹਾ ਜਾਈਐ ਤਹ ਜਲ ਪਖਾਨ ॥ … ਊਹਾਂ ਤਉ ਜਾਈਐ ਜਉ ਈਹਾਂ ਨ ਹੋਇ ॥੨॥ : (Bhagat Rama Nand Ji proclaims:) Wherever (i.e., pilgrim places) I go, I find (only two things) water and stones (i.e., idols). … I would need go there only if the Divine were not here (within my mind, meaning since the Divine is within I need not go to visit any pilgrim place). ||2|| (sggs 1195).
  • ਅਸਮਾਨ ਮ੍ਯ੍ਯਿਾਨੇ ਲਹੰਗ ਦਰੀਆ ਗੁਸਲ ਕਰਦਨ ਬੂਦ ॥: In the mind, a stream flows (i.e., the stream of Wisdom, Virtues, Amrit, Truth, Universal Energy…); take your bath in it. (sggs 727).
In nutshell:
For a real Sikh, Gurmat is the Giaan Teerath (ਗਿਆਨ ਤੀਰਥ)!
Thus, Teerath in Sikhi = GUR-SHABAD!
Thus, Shabad-Vichaar in Sikhi =  the pilgrimage (Gurmukh lifestyle).

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