Naam Padaarath and Giaan Padaarath

Gian (ਗਿਆਨ) is pronounced as Giaan (also spelt Giyan, etc.). Literally, Giaan means knowledge, Wisdom

Padarath (ਪਦਾਰਥ) is pronounced as Padaarath. Literally, Padaarath means stuff, material, matter, a thing, ਵਸਤ…

Nam (ਨਾਮ) is pronounced as Naam. Literally, Naam means name…

In essence, Naam is Giaan — Wisdom, Knowledge, Hukam, Understanding of the Divine Life or Gurmukh Lifestyle (ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਸੂਝ-ਬੂਝ…).

  • ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੋ ਦੇਇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇ ॥: The Gur-Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom…) is the Naam Padaarath. (Hence, the Guru) makes the Hari Naam firm (resolved, stable, strong, properly understood, ਪੱਕਾ, ਦ੍ਰਿੜ, etc., in the mind of the sincere seeker of Truth – ਜਗ੍ਯਾਸੂ…). (sggs 759).
  • ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨਾਮਿ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਹੋਈ ॥: By becoming the Gurmukh (Spiritual Being, follower of the Truth and truthful living…, one) acquires Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom…), and through the Naam (the Gurmukh) gets liberated (Muki-ਮੁਕਤੀ). (sggs 117).
  • ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ ਪਾਇਆ ਗਿਆਨ ਕਾਇਆ ਰਸ ਭੋਗੰ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: One who has obtained the Amrit Naam, his mind enjoys the Pleasure (ਆਤਮਕ ਆਨੰਦ) of Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਨਾਲ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ…). ||1||Pause|| (sggs 360).
  • ਗਿਆਨਿ ਰਤਨਿ ਘਟਿ ਚਾਨਣੁ ਹੋਆ ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮ ਪਿਆਰੋ ॥: Giaani ratani ghati chaananu hoaa Nanak naam piaaro: O Nanak! (In whom) The Light of the Jewel of the Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Gur-Giaan…) shines within the Heart, (he) loves the Naam. (sggs 584).
  • ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਤ੍ਰਿਭਵਣ ਸੋਝੀ ਹੋਇ ॥: Obtaining the wealth of the Giaan Padaarath (Spiritual Wisdom…), understanding of the three worlds is acquired. (sggs 60).

According to the Sri Guru Granth Sahib (SGGS), the entire Gurbani is Naam.

  • ਜਨੁ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਬੋਲੇ ਗੁਣ ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥੪॥੫॥: “Janu” Nanak utters the Bani of the Divine Virtues [i.e., the Divine Wisdom (“Gur-ਗੁਰ”) and the Divine Virtues (“Gun-ਗੁਣ”) are embedded in the Gurbani]; one gets absorbed in the Hari Naam through the Gurbani (i.e., living by the Divine Wisdom and the Divine Virtues of the Gurbani). ||4||5|| (sggs 494).
  • ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨਾ ਕਿਆ ਗਿਆਨ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥: Naam binaa kiaa giaan dhiaanu (sggs 905).

But, where is this Naam located? According to the Gurbani, the Naam is located within. For as indicated throughout the Gurbani the Shabad, Satgur, Mool (ਮੂਲ), Amrit … “everything” is within.

And how does one realize it? Again, according to the Gurbani, it is realized through the constant Shabad-Vichaar.

Also, where is the Giaan or Divine Knowledge located? According to the Gurbani, like the Naam, the Giaan too is present within.

The Gurbani confirms these three forgoing statements as follows:

  • ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਦੇਹੀ ਸੋਧਿ ਤੂੰ ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਇਸੁ ਦੇਹੀ ਵਿਚਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਹੈ ਪਾਈਐ ਗੁਰ ਕੈ ਹੇਤਿ ਅਪਾਰਿ ॥੮॥੧੦॥੩੨॥: Search this mind and body, by the Gur-Shabad-Vichaar (by reflecting on the Gur-Shabad…). O Nanak! Within this body is the Treasure of the Naam; it is attained through the unbounded love for the Gur (Gur-Giaan…) ||8||10||32|| (sggs 427).
  • ਅੰਤਰਿ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਦੀਆ ਬੁਝਾਇ ॥ ਮੈਲੁ ਗਈ ਮਨੁ ਨਿਰਮਲੁ ਹੋਆ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਰਿ ਤੀਰਥਿ ਨਾਇ ॥: Deep within is the sacred shrine (Teerath) of Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom…), which the Satgur has revealed. Bathing in (this sacred shrine), the pool of Amrit, filth of the mind (filth of passions, Bikaars – lust, anger, greed, etc…) is removed and it becomes pure. (sggs 587).
  • ਸਭ ਕਿਛੁ ਘਰ ਮਹਿ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ॥ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਟੋਲੈ ਸੋ ਭਰਮਿ ਭੁਲਾਹੀ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਪਰਸਾਦੀ ਜਿਨੀ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਸੋ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਸੁਹੇਲਾ ਜੀਉ ॥੧॥: (The Divine Virtues, Wisdom, Spiritual tranquility, Naam, Shabad, Amrit, Prabh, ਆਤਮਕ ਸੁਖ…) all that is within the Heart-Home; not outside. Who searches outside is deluded by doubts. By “Gur Parasaadee” (i.e., by the Grace of the Gur-Giaan, the Divine Wisdom of the Gurbani …), those who have Realized within are Happy (tranquil) inwardly and outwardly. ||1|| (sggs 102).

Thus, in essence, the Naam Padaarath and the Giaan padaarath are essentially one and the same, and its all within. But, as indicated above, all of this is realized through the “Gurprasaadi” — Gur-Grace: Grace of the Gur-Giaan or Wisdom.

  • ਐਸਾ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਪਾਵਸਿ ਰਸਿ ਰਸਿ ਮਾਨੁ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Such is the Padaarath of Giaan and Naam. By becoming the Gurmukh, one obtains it and enjoys its subtle Essence and attains dignity. ||1|| Pause|| (sggs 831).

As stated above, the Naam Padaarath is realized within through the Shabad-Vichaar.

  • ਇਸੁ ਕਾਇਆ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਉ ਨਿਧਿ ਪਾਈਐ ਗੁਰ ਕੈ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰਾ ॥੪॥: By reflecting on the Gur-Shabad, Naam is realized within the mind, which is like obtaining all treasures (of this world). (sggs 754).

Now, what is Shabad-Vichaar? It is essentially churning the Gurbani ( Gurmat – Wisdom, Giaan, Upadesh or Way of the SGGS…). By churning the cream or curd, butter is obtained. Similarly, by churning the Gurbani (through the Shabad-Vichaar…) the butter of Giaan (Gur-Giaan, Aatam-Giaan, Wisdom…) is obtained. More we churn the Gurbani (Shabad-Vichaar…), more the butter of Giaan is obtained.

  • ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਦਧਿ ਮਥੀਐ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨਾ ॥: Following the Guru’s Teachings, churn the cream (Gurbani, Gur-Shabad…), and the Treasure of the Amrit Naam is obtained (sggs 1009).
  • ਜਨੁ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਬੋਲੇ ਗੁਣ ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥੪॥੫॥: O Daas Nanak! (The one who) utters the Baanee of the Divine Virtues (ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਫਤ-ਸਾਲਾਹ ਵਾਲੀ ਬਾਣੀ…); through the Gurbani, (he) is absorbed in the Lord’s Naam. (sggs 494).

The Gurbani also tells us how to do this churning. That is, the churning has to be done in Sahaj – Natural State of Being, Intuitive Ease, ਸਭਾਵਕ, ਅਡੋਲ ਅਵਸਤਾ…

In other words, calculated or ritual readings/listening of the Gurbani without understanding (such as ritualistic or mechanical Nitnems, machine-gun Paaths, Akhand Paaths, counting beads, and so on) are of no avail. All that Karamkaand is like churning water!! The Gurbani alerts us:

  • ਜਲੁ ਬਿਲੋਵੈ ਜਲੁ ਮਥੈ ਤਤੁ ਲੋੜੈ ਅੰਧੁ ਅਗਿਆਨਾ ॥ ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਦਧਿ ਮਥੀਐ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨਾ ॥ ਮਨਮੁਖ ਤਤੁ ਨ ਜਾਣਨੀ ਪਸੂ ਮਾਹਿ ਸਮਾਨਾ ॥੩॥ : The mortal who stirs the water, and (always) churns the water in hope to obtain butter, is blind (mentally blind), and ignorant. (If we) churn the cream (butter is obtained, similarly) following the Gurmat (i.e., following the Gurbani’s Teaching, the Butter of), the Treasure of the Amrit-Naam is obtained. The Manmukhs do not understand (this) Essence (Truth…), they remain centered in animal-consciousness (ਪਸੂ-ਬ੍ਰਿਤੀ). ||3||(sggs 1009).
  • ਭਰਮੇ ਭੂਲਾ ਸਾਕਤੁ ਫਿਰਤਾ ॥ ਨੀਰੁ ਬਿਰੋਲੈ ਖਪਿ ਖਪਿ ਮਰਤਾ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: The Saakat (one fallen from the Spiritual Life…), deluded by doubt, wanders around (ਕੁਰਾਹੇ). He churns water, and expending (his life so uselessly in rituals, etc.), he dies (churning water-ਆਤਮਕ ਮੌਤੇ). ||1||Pause||. (sggs 739).

Hence, the Gurbani defines the true Giaanee (the person of Wisdom or Giaan: ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ) as the one who Naturally (Sahaj) remains attuned to the Shabad, Naam, Gurbani, Hukam….

  • ਸੋ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਜਿਨਿ ਸਬਦਿ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਈ ॥: He alone is a Giaanee (ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ), who has focused his consciousness on the Shabad (sggs 831).
  • ਗਿਆਨੀਆ ਕਾ ਧਨੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਕਰਹਿ ਵਾਪਾਰੁ ॥: The Wealth of the persons of Giaan (ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ) is the Naam; with Sahaj, they trade (in this Naam Wealth). (sggs 68).
  • ਸਹਜੇ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਰਗਟੁ ਹੋਇ ॥੧॥: Meditating on the Naam with Sahaj, Giaan is manifested. ||1||. (sggs 429).

Now let’s ask the Gurbani as to why the majority of us don’t practice what the Gurbani tells us practice? Because the majority of us in this world are busy churning water (preoccupation with other nonsense activities, rituals, Karamkaand -“ਅਵਰੇ ਕਰਮ”, “ਪਸੂ ਮਾਹਿ ਸਮਾਨਾ”… )!

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਨੀ ਅਗਿਆਨੀ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਅਵਰੇ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਹਿ ॥: O Nanak, the blind, ignorant fools do not remember the Naam; they involve themselves in other activities (sggs 648).

In nutshell, the Divine Knowledge or Giaan of the Gurbani (Gur-Shabad, Gurmat…) is the Naam-Padaarath (i.e., ਗੁਰਮਤ ਦਾ ਗਿਆਨ ਹੀ ਨਾਮ ਪਦਾਰਥ ਹੈ).

The Gurbani is akin to a Thaal (ਥਾਲ – plate). The Giaan Padaarath (ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥ – Wisdom) is put on (infused, injected, penetrated…) this Thaal (plate) – ਥਾਲ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ “ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥ” ਪਾਇਆ ਹੈ, that is, ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ “ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥ” ਇਕ ਵਸਤੂ ਪਾਈ ਹੈ.

To put it otherwise, the Shabad-Vichaar is the Naam Amrit.

  • ਥਾਲ ਵਿਚਿ ਤਿੰਨਿ ਵਸਤੂ ਪਈਓ ਸਤੁ ਸੰਤੋਖੁ ਵੀਚਾਰੋ ॥ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਨਾਮੁ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਕਾ ਪਇਓ ਜਿਸ ਕਾ ਸਭਸੁ ਅਧਾਰੋ ॥ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਖਾਵੈ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਭੁੰਚੈ ਤਿਸ ਕਾ ਹੋਇ ਉਧਾਰੋ ॥: (Through all the contributors of the SGGS, You O Paarbrahm!), have placed one Thing on this Plate (of the letters of the SGGS, ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਦੇ ਅੱਖਰਾ ਰੂਪ ਥਾਲ…) — contemplation or Reflection on the true contentment (i.e., ਸਤ ਸੰਤੋਖ ਦੀ ਵੀਚਾਰ — How to experience or realize through the true contentment). (This is) the Amrit Naam of the Divine that has been placed (upon the Plate of the letters of the SGGS); it is the Support of all. One who eats it (i.e., the spiritual food – ਆਤਮਕ ਭੋਜਨ) and enjoys it is delivered (freed from Maya, Bikaars…). (sggs 1429).

What does constitute Dharma and a Dhaarmic person? Gurbani tells us that a person cannot be Dhaarmic unless he possesses the Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Aatam-Giaan, Virtues…). However, many of us try to become Dhaarmic before realizing Giaan!

  • ਕਬੀਰਾ ਜਹਾ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਤਹ ਧਰਮੁ ਹੈ ਜਹਾ ਝੂਠੁ ਤਹ ਪਾਪੁ ॥: O Kabeer! (Within a person, if) there is Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Divine Knowledge, Aatm-Giaan…) there is Dharma; (if within him) there is falsehood, there is sin (sggs 1372).
  • ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਧਰਮੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥: That person (who performs all sorts of rituals and has no Divine Virtues) has neither Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Divine Knowledge, Aatm-Giaan…) nor Dhiaan (meditation); neither Dharma nor Dhiaan (meditation). (sggs 935).

Thus, the Gurbani makes it clear that without the real Giaan or Wisdom there can be no real Dharma (i.e., living a life of true Dharma – ਧਰਮ…) or Dhiaan (meditation, focus, concentration…). The Real Giaan is seeing the One Truth transparent in the plurality while living in the midst of this world of plurality or Maya (ਸੋਈ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਜਿ ਸਿਮਰੈ ਏਕ ॥ Soee giaaneee ji simarai ek, sggs 1150).

So, in order to realize the Giaan Padaarath and the Naam Padaarath, the Gurbani urges us to become the Gurmukh (the follower of the Truth and truthful living-ਸਚ…).

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਮਥਿ ਤਤੁ ਕਢੀਏ ॥੪॥੫॥੫੭॥: O Nanak, by becoming the Gurmukh, one who churns this ocean (of the body and the Divine Virtue that are present within this body), discovers Essence (ਨਿਚੋੜ – ਉੱਚਾ ਸੁੱਚਾ ਜੀਵਨ) ||4||5||57|| (sggs 367).
  • ਤਨੁ ਕਰਿ ਮਟੁਕੀ ਮਨ ਮਾਹਿ ਬਿਲੋਈ ॥ ਇਸੁ ਮਟੁਕੀ ਮਹਿ ਸਬਦੁ ਸੰਜੋਈ ॥੨॥: Make body the churning jar (ਚਾਟੀ), and churn therein with the (stick – ਮਧਾਣੀ – of the) mind. In this (body-) jar, gather (the milk of) the Shabad. ||2|| (sggs 478).

Share Your Thoughts - Vichar

Your email address will not be published. * = required. Comment Policy.