Acting in stubbornness and egotism, (Truth) is not attained (Realized, etc.) (sggs 905).
One who stubbornly follows his own mind (ਮੂੰਹ-ਜ਼ੋਰ ਮਨੁੱਖ) will suffer
ahead ||12|| (sggs 470).
The Sikhi is born and brought up in Prema
Bhagti (Gurmat-Aatam Giaan). Hence, the Sikh philosophy is the
Way of the Soul; not the way of the stubborn mindedness, defiled senses, deluded mind, or corrupt
intellect. Instead, it is the game of Shabad-Surti or God-Consciousness.
As such, it is to be played in the Sahaj Maarag - Natural State of just
"Being", ਆਤਮਕ ਅਡੋਲਤਾ ; the State which is Transcendental, Simple, Spontaneous, Intuitive,
Peaceful, Pure, True, Still, Quiet, Wisdom, Dheeraj,
Love, Inner Perfection, Goodness, Oneness, Spiritual Silence (Sunn Samaadhi),
and so on. It is so because the nature of the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...) is "Sahaj"
and Subtle. To realize this Subtlest Truth, one must take means which are equally
Like beads, all thoughts or states of our instinctive
mind are strung on the basic obstinate error of Mool-forgetfulness. Each state
of the mind is transitory, hence unreal. Since the mind is nothing but a collection
of these transitory states or thoughts-stuff, it is also transitory. Non-reflection,
non-investigation, non-inquiry or the absence of Shabad-Vichaar is the
thread on which the beads of all these unreal states of mind are strung. For all
the mental states, names and forms are rooted in the darkness of the Mool-forgetfulness;
wherein the Truth that the living entity is nothing but the "Joti-Svaroopa"
becomes forgotten. Consequently, one takes the transitory states of his mind as
his real Mool (Source, Origin, Jot...).
- ਬਾਬੀਹਾ ਤੂੰ ਸਹਜਿ ਬੋਲਿ ਸਚੈ ਸਬਦਿ ਸੁਭਾਇ ॥ ਸਭੁ ਕਿਛੁ ਤੇਰੈ ਨਾਲਿ ਹੈ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਦੀਆ ਦਿਖਾਇ ॥: Baabeehaa toon Sahaj bol sachai Sabad subhaai. Sabh kish terai naal hai satigur deeaa dikhaai: O rainbird (of the mind - O amorist or lover of the drop of rainwater of the Lord's Name that bestows spiritual life - ਹੇ ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੇਣ ਵਾਲੀ ਨਾਮ-ਬੂੰਦ ਦੇ ਰਸੀਏ!), by being established in Sahaj (Intuitive Poise, Natural state of Being - ਆਤਮਕ ਅਡੋਲਤਾ ਵਿਚ ਟਿਕ ਕੇ), attune to the True Shabad, with love, engage in Naam-Simran. Everything (Bliss, etc., that emanates from the drop of the Lord's Name) is within you; (but only that person realizes it to whom) the Satguru has shown this (sggs 1420). (Note: a bird called Baabeehaa is said to be an amorist of the first drop of the rainwater, and cries out for it!).
- ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਬਿਗਸੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਸੁਭਾਇ ॥: Gurmukh bigsai Sahaj subhhaai: The Gurmukh (Spiritual Being) blossoms forth with Sahaj (sggs 1173).
state or nature of stubborn mindedness (Mann-Hatha, ਮਨ-ਹਠ), thus, is the way of
the inflated ego; hence absolutely opposite to the Divine attributes of Sahaj
Avasthaa, Prema-Bhagti, Spiritual Wisdom (Shabad-Giaan) or Naam
Simran. Simply put, the Mann-Hatha is the way of the Manmukh
- unwise, material or ego being in Mayadhaaree existence.
- ਆਪੁ ਬੀਚਾਰੇ ਸੁ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਹੋਈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Aap beechaare su giaanee hoyee ||1||Rahaaou||: One who engages in Vichaar (ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਪੜਤਾਲ) becomes truely Wise or Giaanee (ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਸੂਝ ਵਾਲਾ). ||1||Pause|| (sggs 152).
- ਇਉ ਕਹੈ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਮਨ ਤੂੰ ਜੋਤਿ ਸਰੂਪੁ ਹੈ ਅਪਣਾ ਮੂਲੁ ਪਛਾਣੁ ॥੫॥: Iou kahai Nanak mann toon joti saroop hai apanaa mool pashaan ||5||: Thus says Nanak: O my mind, you are the embodiment or the True Image of the Divine Light (i.e., God) - recognize your Origin ||5|| (sggs 441).
- ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਨੀ ਅਗਿਆਨੀ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਅਵਰੇ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਹਿ ॥: Nanak
Naam na chetnee agiyaanee andhule avare karam kaamaahi: O Nanak, the blind,
ignorant fools do not remember the Naam; they involve themselves in other activities
- ਹਠੁ ਅਹੰਕਾਰੁ ਕਰੈ ਨਹੀ ਪਾਵੈ ॥: Hatha ahankaar karai nahee paavai:
Acting in stubbornness and egotism, (Truth) is not attained (Realized, etc.) (sggs 905).
the pages that lie ahead, the Gurbani (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, SGGS) will reveal
to us the Truth about this ignoble and demoniac quality of "stubborn mindedness".
In this context, this Gurbani Reflection will attempt to reflect on the followings:
- What Is Stubborn Mindedness?
Bathing In Stubbornness
- Religious Wearing In Stubbornness
Performing Calculated Service In Stubbornness
Reading And Listening Gurbani In Stubbornness
- Singing Kirtan In Stubbornness
Cooking Separate Food In Stubbornness
- Destruction of Stubbornness
the Gurbani is of the nature of Parameshar, it only speaks the Truth. In the beginning,
however, the Truth may taste bitter and unpleasant to our false ego, as our inner
mind reveals to us our shocking crookedness, falsehood, corruption, perversions,
and weaknesses. Overwhelmed by these shocks, many of us may shrink from pursuing
It, as the inner self plays back unhappy thoughts on the screen of our instinctive
mind. However, diligent attempt, consistent self-effort, and continuous mental
alertness is the key to the conquest. In all earnestness if the Truth is given
a chance, it will sink in and then taste sweet later! Baabaa Nanak Says:
- ਤਬ ਲਗੁ ਮਹਲੁ ਨ ਪਾਈਐ ਜਬ ਲਗੁ ਸਾਚੁ ਨ ਚੀਤਿ ॥: Tab lag mahal na paaeeai jab lag saach n cheeti: As long as the Truth does not enter into the consciousness, the Divine Presence is not realized (sggs 58).
What Is Stubborn
The stubborn mindedness (Mann-Hatha)
is the lack of the followings: Spiritual Wisdom (Aatam Giaan), Spiritual Understanding (ਸੂਝ-ਬੂਝ) of the Gur-Shabad. It is synonymous to the state of self-will (Manmukhataa) - selfishness, falsehood,
unbelief, affliction, hardness of heart, impenitence, reprobacy, heinousness,
fanaticism, crookedness, evil-mindedness, mental-weakness, immaturity, egoity,
and raw or undisciplined mind, etc. Such person, although, may be aware of thinking,
feeling and acting, but he is unaware of his Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...).
the meaning, function, and outcome of stubborn mindedness is totally apposite
to the Sahaj Maarag or Sahaj Avasthaa of the Gurmat. Consequently,
any actions performed in mental stubbornness are condemned and rejected by the
Gurbani. Baabaa Nanak declares in the following verses that:
intellect that's cut off from the Super Consciousness (Mool within) by becoming opinionated
(stubborn mindedness) becomes the external or false ego (Haumai). When a person is represented
by such contaminated intellect, his behavior becomes stubborn, unyielding or fanatic.
He always wants to hold on to his ego-sense; as such, if agitated or disturbed,
he behaves unfriendly or violently. Simply put: a stubborn person has no sense
of consequences of his actions! Accordingly, he refuses to hearken to Gur-Shabad; and he refuses to receive correction.
ਅਗਿਆਨੀ ਅੰਧਾ ਬਹੁ ਕਰਮ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਏ ॥ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਰਮ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੋਨੀ ਪਾਏ ॥ ਬਿਖਿਆ ਕਾਰਣਿ ਲਬੁ ਲੋਭੁ ਕਮਾਵਹਿ ਦੁਰਮਤਿ ਕਾ ਦੋਰਾਹਾ ਹੇ ॥੯॥: Agiaani andhaa bahu karam drirhaae. Mann hathi karam hiri
jonee paae. Bikhiaa kaaran lab lobh kamaavahi durmat kaa doraahaa he ||9||: The ignorant (of spiritual life - ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਤੋਂ) and blind (in love of Maya - ਮਾਇਆ ਦੇ ਮੋਹ ਵਿਚ) cling to all sorts of rituals. They
stubborn-mindedly perform these rituals, and are consigned to reincarnation For the sake of poison (Maya), they act in greed and possessiveness; evil-minded duality (arises in their life-journey. ||9|| (sggs
- ਮੈ ਅਵਰੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਪੂਜਾ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਵਸਿ ਰਹੇ ॥ ਭੇਖੁ ਭਵਨੀ ਹਠੁ ਨ ਜਾਨਾ ਨਾਨਕਾ ਸਚੁ ਗਹਿ ਰਹੇ ॥੧॥: Mai avar giaan n dhiaan poojaa Hari Naam antari vasi rahe. Bhekh bhavnee hath n jaanaa Nanakaa sach gahi rahe ||1||: God's Name dwells deep within me, I know no other wisdom, meditation or worship. I know nothing about religious robes, pilgrimages or stubbornness; O Nanak, I only hold tight to the Truth ||1|| (sggs 843).
- ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਰਮ ਕਰੇ ਸੋ ਛੀਜੈ ॥ ਬਹੁਤੇ ਭੇਖ ਕਰੇ ਨਹੀ ਭੀਜੈ ॥ ਬਿਖਿਆ ਰਾਤੇ ਦੁਖੁ ਕਮਾਵਹਿ ਦੁਖੇ ਦੁਖਿ ਸਮਾਇਦਾ ॥੧੧॥: Manhatha karam kare so sheejai. Bahute
bhekh kare nahee bheejai. Bikhiaa raate dukh kamaavahi dukhe dukh samaaidaa: ||11||: Those who act stubborn-mindedly are destroyed (weaken of spiritual life - ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਵਲੋਂ ਕਮਜ਼ੋਰ).
Wearing all sorts of religious robes, they do not please God. Tinged by corruption (love of Maya),
they earn only pain (from whatever they do) ||11|| (sggs 1059).
- But they
did not listen or pay attention; instead, they followed the stubborn inclinations
of their evil hearts. They went backward and not forward (Bible, Jer 7:24).
Therefore, as revealed in the Gurbani, the
state of stubborn mindedness and Manmukh (material being) is one and the
same; for it is characterized by doubts, egotism,
foolishness, ignorance, mental trickery, falsehood, deception, untruth, duality,
bondage, corruption, cheating, crookedness, fear, greed, insecurity, selfishness,
desires and fear, Vaasnaa, etc. The opposite of such stubborn fanatic
is the Gurmukh, the Mool-realized person.
- ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਰਮ ਕਰੈ ਅਭਿਮਾਨੀ ਜਿਉ ਬਾਲਕ ਬਾਲੂ ਘਰ ਉਸਰਈਆ ॥ ਆਵੈ ਲਹਰਿ ਸਮੁੰਦ ਸਾਗਰ ਕੀ ਖਿਨ ਮਹਿ ਭਿੰਨ ਭਿੰਨ ਢਹਿ ਪਈਆ ॥੭॥: Mann
hathi karam kare abhimaanee jiou baalak baaloo ghar usareeaa. AAvai lahar smund kee khin mahi bhinn bhinn paaeeaa ||7||: (Whosoever) performs rituals in stubborn-mindedness, he becomes proudy (of being religious); but (these efforts of him) are like sand castles
built by children -- when the waves of the ocean come in, they (sand castles) crumble and dissolve in an instant. ||7|| (sggs 835).
- ਮਨਹਠ ਬੁਧੀ ਕੇਤੀਆ ਕੇਤੇ ਬੇਦ ਬੀਚਾਰ ॥ ਕੇਤੇ ਬੰਧਨ ਜੀਅ ਕੇ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਮੋਖ ਦੁਆਰ ॥ ਸਚਹੁ ਓਰੈ ਸਭੁ ਕੋ ਉਪਰਿ ਸਚੁ ਆਚਾਰੁ ॥੫॥: Mann hatha budhee
keteeyaa kete bed beechaar....: There are so many (who perform all sorts of actions) with stubborn intelligence, and so many who contemplate the Vedas (etc.). There are so many (mother similar) entanglements
for the Jeeva (individual beings). Only by becoming the Gurmukhs (spiritual beings, etc.) do we find the Gate of Liberation (from ego, entanglements, etc.). Truth is higher
than everything; but higher still is truthful living ||5|| (sggs 62).
- ਇਕਿ ਆਵਹਿ ਇਕਿ ਜਾਵਹੀ ਪੂਰਿ ਭਰੇ ਅਹੰਕਾਰਿ ॥ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਮਤੀ ਬੂਡੀਐ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਚੁ ਸੁ ਤਾਰਿ ॥੧॥: Iki aavahi iki
jaavahee poori bhare ahankaar. Mannhathi matee boodeeyai Gurmukhi sach su taari ||1||:
Totally filled with egotism, some come and go. Through the stubbornness of
the intellect, (they are) drowned (in the ocean of corruption, Bikaars, etc.); one who becomes Gurmukh and truthful is saved ||1|| (sggs
indicated in the Gurbani, some examples of stubborn mindedness are as follows:
Bathing in cold water early morning, sitting in wilderness to perform penance,
making pilgrimages, bathing at the so called sacred ponds (Srovars or
Sar), mechanical reading of scriptures without understanding a word of them,
applying the so called ceremonial religious garbs and symbols to the perishable
body, worshipping images and embodied beings (But-Prastee and Aadam-Prastee),
fasting, making vows, standing naked in the water, enduring hunger and poverty,
sitting cross-legged, stubbornly practicing ritualistic postures and austerities,
standing on their heads, making offerings and sacred feasts, intense meditations
with the body upside-down, performing external worship services, making donations
to charity in ignorance, performing fire sacrifices, clean shaving the head or
keeping long hair, performing fire sacrifices, carrying ceremonial walking sticks,
digging wells and pools, asceticism, observing celibacy, abiding in detachment
as Udaasees, being naked renunciates, applying patch on the mouth, wearing patched
coats, practicing occult powers, remaining always awake, bathing at holy places
of pilgrimage, believing in untouchability, remaining secluded, thinking wise
in their own minds, plucking the hair out of heads, afraid of cleanliness and
drink in filthy water and beg endlessly and eat the garbage which others have
thrown away, spreading manure and suck in rotting smells, smearing bodies with
ashes, renouncing or asserting faith in family, having begging bowls hanging from
waists and keeping fly-brushes in hands, practicing austere meditation and live
on roots and the fruits, living at sacred shrines of pilgrimage, wandering all
across the earth, disciplining body and the mind that run around in ten directions,
practicing celibacy, wear religious robes for show, singing melodies and hymns
without true love, practicing rigid meditation, practicing self-discipline, speaking
of liberation like yogis, and so on. The Gurbani thunders forth the declaration
that Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...) cannot be won over with such stubborn mindedness.
- ਵਿਣੁ ਮਨੈ ਜਿ ਹੋਰੀ ਨਾਲਿ ਲੁਝਣਾ ਜਾਸੀ ਜਨਮੁ ਗਵਾਇ ॥ ਮਨਮੁਖੀ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਹਾਰਿਆ ਕੂੜੁ ਕੁਸਤੁ ਕਮਾਇ ॥: Vin
mannai ji horee naali lujhnaa jaasee janam gavaai. Manmukhee mannhathi haariaa
koorh kusat kamaai: Those who struggle with something other than their
own mind, will depart having wasted their lives. The Manmukhs (the self-willed, materialistics, etc.), through stubborn mindedness
and the practice of falsehood, lose the game of life (sggs 87).
Prior to Baabaa Nanak, all types of Mann-Hatha
(stubborn mindedness) were prevalent in the society. However, he decisively condemned
and rejected all of them by declaring that one cannot realize the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...) by such
foolishness. In turn, he gave us the Divine Gurbani so that all future generations
to come can understand the folly of stubborn mindedness.
- ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਿਨੈ ਨ ਪਾਇਆ ਕਰਿ ਉਪਾਵ ਥਕੇ ਸਭੁ ਕੋਇ ॥ ਸਹਸ ਸਿਆਣਪ ਕਰਿ ਰਹੇ ਮਨਿ ਕੋਰੈ ਰੰਗੁ ਨ ਹੋਇ ॥ ਕੂੜਿ ਕਪਟਿ ਕਿਨੈ ਨ ਪਾਇਓ ਜੋ ਬੀਜੈ ਖਾਵੈ ਸੋਇ ॥੩॥: Mannhathi kinai na paaiaa kari upaav thake sabh
koi ..: No one has found God by (ਤਪ ਆਦਿਕ, rituals, etc. done through) stubborn mindedness. Aall grow weary
of (such empty) efforts. (Those who) try thousands of (such) clever mental tricks (in stubbornness) the
raw and undisciplined mind does not absorb the Color of the Lord's Love (Name, etc.). By falsehood
and deception, none have found Him. Whatever one plants, so he eats ||3|| (sggs 39-40).
- ਲਖ ਚਉਰਾਸੀਹ ਭਰਮਦੇ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਆਵੈ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਕਾ ਸਬਦੁ ਨ ਚੀਨਿਓ ਫਿਰਿ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੋਨੀ ਪਾਇ ॥੨॥: Lakh chaouraasee bharamade mann hathi
aavai jaai. Gur kaa sabad na cheenio phiri phiri joonee paai ||2||: (ਮਾਇਆ ਦੇ ਮੋਹ ਵਿਚ ਬੱਝੇ ਹੋਏ ਜੀਵ) in stubborn-mindedness, people wander through
8.4 million incarnations. They do not realize (recognize, understand, etc.) the Gur-Shabad; they are reincarnated over
and over again ||2|| (sggs 162).
surprisingly, rituals based on Mann-Hatha
still are practiced by the Pujaaree group at the religious places,
as well as in personal life by majority of us on a daily basis!
enough, in spite of condemnation by the Gurbani, the term "stubborn mindedness"
has made its way into the Sikh Ardaas (holy prayer) as well! For example,
the portion of the Ardaas that was later composed and added by the Pujaaree group reads: "...Hatheeaan Japeeaan Tapeeaan jinna..."; here the
use of word "Hatheeaan" (meaning one with stubborn mindedness) appears
to be in direct contradiction with the Gurmat (Shabad-Giyan)! [footnote
Since all types of Mann-Hatha
are rejected and condemned by the Gurbani, it is very obvious that either we do
not believe in the Gur-Shabad or we do not understand it! This Gurbani
Reflection will attempt to reflect on a few of the widely practiced Mann-Hatha
in our daily life. Baabaa Nanak says:
- ਪਉੜੀ ॥ ਸਚਾ ਅਲਖ ਅਭੇਉ ਹਠਿ ਨ ਪਤੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਰਾਗ ਪਰੀਆ ਰਾਗਿ ਨ ਭੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਨਚਿ ਨਚਿ ਪੂਰਹਿ ਤਾਲ ਭਗਤਿ ਨ ਕੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਅੰਨੁ ਨ ਖਾਹਿ ਮੂਰਖ ਤਿਨਾ ਕਿਆ ਕੀਜਈ ॥ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਹੋਈ ਬਹੁਤੁ ਕਿਵੈ ਨ ਧੀਜਈ ॥ ਕਰਮ ਵਧਹਿ ਕੈ ਲੋਅ ਖਪਿ ਮਰੀਜਈ ॥ ਲਾਹਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਸੰਸਾਰਿ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪੀਜਈ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਭਗਤੀ ਅਸਨੇਹਿ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਘੀਜਈ ॥੧੭॥: Pourree || Sachaa
alakh abheou hathi n pateejaee ...: Pourree. The True, Unseen, Mysterious (God)
is not won over by stubbornness. Some sing according to traditional Raag, but the Lord is not pleased by these Raag. Some dance and dance in perfect beat, but this is not the way of worship (either). Some refuse to eat; (tell me) what can
be done with these fools? (i.e., how can it be explained to them that the Truth is not realized like this, etc.). By such acts, their thirst (desires) greatly increase;
(consequently) nothing (done in stubbornness) can bring them satisfaction. Somany are tied down by rituals;
they hassle themselves to death. In this world, the true profit (ਨਾਮ ਹੀ ਖੱਟੀ) comes by drinking in the Amrit Naam, Name of the Lord. By becoming the Gurmukh, (one) attains (the Bliss of) Bhagti (devotion) of the Lord ||17|| (sggs 1285).
- ਮੁਹਿ ਚਲੈ ਸੁ ਅਗੈ ਮਾਰੀਐ ॥੧੨॥: Muhi challai
su aggai maareeai ||12||: One who stubbornly follows his own mind (ਮੂੰਹ-ਜ਼ੋਰ ਮਨੁੱਖ) will suffer
ahead ||12|| (sggs 470).
First, let us reflect on the
ritual bathing or Ishanaan. In stubborn mindedness, many preach that if
you do not take cold bath in the early morning, you cannot find God! Further,
under the spell of duality (Maya) they preach that if you do not visit the places of
pilgrimage and take ritual bath in their waters, then you are doomed as well.
However, the Gurbani rejects such Mann-Hatha,
and declares such Hathees to be Manmukhs. Further, the Gurbani proclaims
that those who believe in such Mann-Hatha are
no better than a "frog" who always remains in cold water!
As revealed by the Gurbani here, one's belief in ritual bathing
is nothing but ignorance. Instead of focusing the consciousness on the Divine
Name and , thereby, cleansing the mind, stubborn ritualists focus it on external
cleansing. In the process, as indicated in the Gurbani, such "idiotic
Manmukhs" end up accumulating more mental filth! Whenever there is
a mention of Ishanaan (bathing) in the Gurbani, it is only pointed toward
the Inner Ishanaan; bathing in the Inner Pool ("Sarovar") of the
Naam-Simran located within the body.
- ਤੀਰਥ ਨਾਤਾ ਕਿਆ ਕਰੇ ਮਨ ਮਹਿ ਮੈਲੁ ਗੁਮਾਨੁ ॥: Tirath
naataa kiaa kare mann mahi mail gumaan: What is the use of bathing at
sacred shrines of pilgrimage, when the filth of stubborn pride is within the mind?
- ਜਲ ਕੈ ਮਜਨਿ ਜੇ ਗਤਿ ਹੋਵੈ ਨਿਤ ਨਿਤ ਮੇਂਡੁਕ ਨਾਵਹਿ ॥ ਜੈਸੇ ਮੇਂਡੁਕ ਤੈਸੇ ਓਇ ਨਰ ਫਿਰਿ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੋਨੀ ਆਵਹਿ ॥੨॥: Jal kai majani je gati hovai nit nit
menduk naavahi. Jaise menduk tese oyi nar phiri phiri joni aavahi ||2||: If salvation can be obtained by bathing in water, then what about the frog, which is always bathing (always remain in water)? As is the frog, so is that mortal; (without the Lord's Name, Naam) he is reincarnated, over and over again ||2|| (sggs 484).
- ਸੂਚੇ ਏਹਿ ਨ ਆਖੀਅਹਿ ਬਹਨਿ ਜਿ ਪਿੰਡਾ ਧੋਇ ॥ ਸੂਚੇ ਸੇਈ ਨਾਨਕਾ ਜਿਨ ਮਨਿ ਵਸਿਆ ਸੋਇ ॥: Sooche ehi na aakheeahi bahani ji pindaa dhoi. Sooche seyee Nanakaa jini mann vasiyaa soi: They are not called pure, who sit down after merely washing their bodies. Only they are pure, O Nanak, within whose minds God abides (sggs 472).
- ਅੰਤਰਿ ਮੈਲੁ ਲੋਭ ਬਹੁ ਝੂਠੇ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਨਾਵਹੁ ਕਾਹੀ ਜੀਉ ॥: Antar mailu lobh bahu jhoothe bahari naavahu kaahee jeeyu: Within you is the great filth of greed and falsehood; why do you bother to wash your body on the outside? (sggs 598).
As stated before, prior
to the coming of Baabaa Nanak, rituals including bathing or ablution in Mann-Hatha
were on the rampant in the society. Although they were totally disapproved by
him, however, surprisingly enough, if we carefully read the Sikh Ardaas
it will reveal to us that the ritual of bathing or ablution also has made its
way into it! For example, the portion of the Ardaas that was later composed
and added by the Pujaaree group reads as follows: "...Sri Amritsar ji
de Ishnaan....". Since the Gurbani condemns making any pilgrimages
and ablutions, this again appears to be in direct contradiction with the Divine
Word! In this regard, the Gurbani questions all of us as follows: [footnote
- ਮਨਮੁਖ ਮੁਗਧ ਕਰਹਿ ਚਤੁਰਾਈ ॥ ਨਾਤਾ ਧੋਤਾ ਥਾਇ ਨ ਪਾਈ ॥: Manmukh mughad kare chaturaaee. Naataa dhotaa thaaye na paaee: The idiotic Manmukhs (materialistics, self-willed, etc.) try to be clever (claim they have performed pilgrimmage and ablution -ਤੀਰਥ-ਇਸ਼ਨਾਨ -, etc.), but in spite of their bathing and washing, they will not be acceptable (ਪਰਵਾਨ ਨ ਹੋਂਣਾਂ) (sggs 114).
- ਏਹੁ ਸਰੀਰੁ ਸਰਵਰੁ ਹੈ ਸੰਤਹੁ ਇਸਨਾਨੁ ਕਰੇ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਈ ॥੧੩॥: Ehu
sareeru saravaru hai santahu ishnaan kare liv laaee ||13||:
O saints, this (human) body is a pool (Srovar); (who) enshrine love for God (it's like he is) bathing (in the Srovar) ||13|| (sggs 909).
ਸਾਧ ਭਲੇ ਅਣਨਾਤਿਆ ਚੋਰ ਸਿ ਚੋਰਾ ਚੋਰ ॥੨॥: Saadh bhale ananaatiyaan chor si choraa chor ||2||:
A saintly being is blessed, even without such bathing (at pilgrim places - ਤੀਰਥਾਂ ਤੇ), while a thief is a thief, no matter how much he bathes (at pilgrim places - ਤੀਰਥਾਂ ਤੇ) ||2|| (sggs 789).
- ਭਾਈ ਰੇ ਮੈਲੁ ਨਾਹੀ ਨਿਰਮਲ ਜਲਿ ਨਾਇ ॥: Bhaaee re mailu
naahee nirmal jal naai: O Siblings of Destiny, filth is washed away by
bathing in the Pure Water of the Name (sggs 57).
Here the Gurmat (Divine Teaching of the
Gurbani) makes it very clear that the true Ishanaan only consists of bathing
the mind in the cleansing water of the Shabad or Naam (Aatam Giaan, Spiritual Wisdom...). Insistence
on any other Ishanaan will only indicate no faith in the Gurbani, bewilderment
of the mind, ignorance of the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...), absurdity of the intellect indulged in the
worldly affairs or duality (Maya).
- ਪੁੰਨ ਦਾਨ ਅਨੇਕ ਨਾਵਣ ਕਿਉ ਅੰਤਰ ਮਲੁ ਧੋਵੈ ॥: Punn daan anek naavan
kiou antar mall dhovai: How can giving donations to charities and countless
cleansing baths wash off the filth within the heart? (sggs 243)
- ਕੂਰ ਕਿਰਿਆ ਉਰਝਿਉ ਸਭ ਹੀ ਜਗ ॥...: Koor kriiya urjhiyo sabh hee jag. Sri bhagvaan ko bhed na paaio: The whole World, being in the grip of false rituals, has not known God's secret (Guru Gobind Singh Jee).
- ਹੁਕਮੁ ਨ ਜਾਣਹਿ ਬਪੁੜੇ ਭੂਲੇ ਫਿਰਹਿ ਗਵਾਰ ॥ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਵਦੇ ਨਿਤ ਨਿਤ ਹੋਹਿ ਖੁਆਰੁ ॥ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਸਾਂਤਿ ਨ ਆਵਈ ਨਾ ਸਚਿ ਲਗੈ ਪਿਆਰੁ ॥੬॥: Hukam na jaanahi bapurhe
bhoole phirahi gavaar. Mannhathi karam kamaavade nit nit hoye khuaar...:
The wretched fools do not know God's Hukam or; they wander around making mistakes. They go about their business stubborn-mindedly; they are disgraced forever and ever. Inner peace does not come to them; they do not embrace love for the True God ||6|| (sggs 66).
- ਨ੍ਹਾਤ ਫਿਰਿਓ ਲੀਏ ਸਾਤ ਸਮੁਦ੍ਰਨਿ ਲੋਕ ਗਯੋ ਪਰਲੋਕ ਗਵਾਇਓ ॥: Naat phirio leee saat samundaran lok gayo parlok gavaaio: Those who have bathed even in seven oceans (i.e., all places of pilgrimages in the entire world) would loose this world as well as the next one (Guru Gobind Singh Jee, Savaiye 9).
- ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨਾ ਗਤਿ ਕੋਇ ਨ ਪਾਵੈ ਹਠਿ ਨਿਗ੍ਰਹਿ ਬੇਬਾਣੈ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਚ ਘਰੁ ਸਬਦਿ ਸਿਞਾਪੈ ਦੁਬਿਧਾ ਮਹਲੁ ਕਿ ਜਾਣੈ ॥੩॥: Naam
binaa gati koi n paavai hathi nigrahi bebaanai. Naanak sach ghar Sabad sinjhaapai
dubidhaa mahal ki jaanai ||3||: Without the Divine Name none attains salvation; stubborn self-discipline and living in the wilderness are of no use at all. O Nanak, the
Truth is Realized through the Shabad. How can the Mansion of His Presence be known through duality (ਹੋਰ ਆਸਰੇ ਦੀ ਝਾਕ ਨਾਲ, etc.) ? ||3|| (sggs 243).
"I am so tired of wearing all these necklaces, hair-ties
and bracelets, and decorating myself. Meeting with my Beloved, I have found peace;
now, I wear the necklace of Total Virtue. O Nanak, the Gurmukh attains God, with
love and affection. Without God, who has found Peace? Reflect upon this in your
mind, and see. Read about God, understand Him, and enshrine love for Him. Chant
God's Name, and meditate on Him; hold tight to the Support of His Name" (sggs
In the forgoing hymn, we are reminded that our material body is born
with two filthy robes: lust and anger. The human life's ultimate aim is to rid
the body of this inner "garbage". However, instead of liberating the body from
this internal filth, majority of us have further adorned it with external blemishes
consisting of various religious paraphernalia. Poor Soul! The Gurbani teaches
us that all these external body robes, and other paraphernalia are nothing but
a pompous show ("Adammbar") of man's unripe ego. Hence condemned by the
religious wearing are condemned by the Gurbani, still people decorate their ephemeral
body with them. Why? The Gurbani provides us with authoritative answers as well
as explanations. According to the Gurbani, many put on such garbs to cover up
their wickedness; to make believe that they know God; to establish their religious
authority; to show they are spiritual scholars; to show they are better than those
who do not wear such robes; to hide the fire of worldly desires and fear; to hide
the filth of Maya within; to show that they know the true teachings of the scriptures;
to hide their corruption, stubbornness, fanaticism, mental delusions or spiritual
ignorance (egoity); and so on. The Gurbani confirms all of this as follows:
- ਬਾਹਰਿ ਭੇਖ ਬਹੁਤੁ ਚਤੁਰਾਈ ਮਨੂਆ ਦਹ ਦਿਸਿ ਧਾਵੈ ॥ ਹਉਮੈ ਬਿਆਪਿਆ ਸਬਦੁ ਨ ਚੀਨ੍ਹ੍ਹੈ ਫਿਰਿ ਫਿਰਿ ਜੂਨੀ ਆਵੈ ॥੩॥: Baahari bhekh bahut...: Outwardly, he wears religious robes and he is very clever, but his mind wanders in the ten directions. Engrossed in ego, he does not remember the Word; over and over again, he is reincarnated. ||3|| (sggs 732).
- ਭੇਖੀ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਨ ਲਭਈ ਵਿਣੁ ਸਚੀ ਸਿਖੰ ॥: Bhekhi prabhu na labhaee vin sachee sikham: God can be found by true instructions, not by religious garbs (sggs 1099).
- Hathi naa pteejai
naa bahu bhekhai...: He is not pleased by stubborn-mindedness, nor by various
religious robes. (sggs 686).
The Gurbani has thus repeatedly warned
us that the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...) cannot be realized by any outwardly religious appearance
or robes. In fact, as claimed by the Gurbani, one can go weary of such religious
wearing or appearance but it will not bring him a bit closer to God. For example,
hunger of a beggar will never depart just by wearing begging robes! Similarly,
we are warned that mind's crookedness or ego-sense can not be seized by such unavailing
- ਅਧਿਕ ਤਿਆਸ ਭੇਖ ਬਹੁ ਕਰੈ ॥: Adhik tiyaas bhekh bahu krai: Excessive thirst
for Maya makes people wear all sorts of religious garbs (sggs 352).
- ਭੇਖ ਅਨੇਕ ਅਗਨਿ ਨਹੀ ਬੁਝੈ ॥ ਕੋਟਿ ਉਪਾਵ ਦਰਗਹ ਨਹੀ ਸਿਝੈ ॥: Bhekh anek agan nahee boojhai. Koti upaav dargah nahee sijhai: Wearing various religious robes, the fire (of desire) is not extinguished; even making millions of (such) efforts, one will not be accepted in the Court of the Lord (sggs 266).
- ਕਰਤੂਤਿ ਪਸੂ ਕੀ ਮਾਨਸ ਜਾਤਿ ॥ ਲੋਕ ਪਚਾਰਾ ਕਰੈ ਦਿਨੁ ਰਾਤਿ ॥ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਭੇਖ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਮਲੁ ਮਾਇਆ ॥ ਛਪਸਿ ਨਾਹਿ ਕਛੁ ਕਰੈ ਛਪਾਇਆ ॥: kartoot pasoo kee maanas jaat. Lok pachaaraa karai din raat. Bahri bhekh antar mal Maya. Shapasi naahi kashu karai shapaaiaa: They (ਮਾਇਆ-ਧਾਰੀ ਜੀਵ - those in love with Maya, etc.) belong to the human species, but they act like animals. Day and night, they make show (ਲੋਕ ਦਿਖਾਵੇ ਦੇ ਕੰਮ). Outwardly, they (those who act like animals) wear religious robes, but within is the filth of Maya. They cannot conceal (their inner filth with outwardly wearing religious robes) (sggs 267).
- ਭੇਖ ਦਿਖਾਵੈ ਸਚੁ ਨ ਕਮਾਵੈ ॥ ਕਹਤੋ ਮਹਲੀ ਨਿਕਟਿ ਨ ਆਵੈ ॥੨॥: Bhekh dikhaavai sach na kmaavai. Kahto mahalee nikit na paavai ||2||: He wears religious robes, but he does not practice Truth; he says that he has found the Mansion of God's Presence, but he can not even get near it ||2|| (sggs 738).
- ਬਾਹਰਿ ਭੇਖ ਕਰਹਿ ਘਨੇਰੇ ॥ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਬਿਖਿਆ ਉਤਰੀ ਘੇਰੇ ॥: Baahri bhekh karhi ghanere. Antar bikhiaa
utree ghere: Outwardly (to look pious and to impress others), they
wear various religious robes, but within, they are enveloped by poison (of Maya).
- ਕਿਨਹੀ ਸਿਧ ਬਹੁ ਚੇਟਕ ਲਾਏ ॥ ਕਿਨਹੀ ਭੇਖ ਬਹੁ ਥਾਟ ਬਨਾਏ ॥ ਕਿਨਹੀ ਤੰਤ ਮੰਤ ਬਹੁ ਖੇਵਾ ॥ ਮੋਹਿ ਦੀਨ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਆਧਾਰਾ ॥੪॥: Kinhee sidh bahu chetak laaye. Kinhee bhekh bahu thaat banaaye. Kinhee tant mant bahu khevaa. Mohi deen hari hari aadhaaraa ||4||: Some practice many miracles and spells (ਰਿੱਧੀਆਂ ਸਿੱਧੀਆਂ ਦੇ ਤਮਾਸ਼ੇ). Some wear various religious robes and establish their authority. Some perform many Tantric spells and charms (ਤੰਤ੍ਰਾਂ ਮੰਤ੍ਰਾਂ ਦੀ ਦੁਕਾਨਦਾਰੀ). (But) I meek have only support of the Lord's Name (i.e., Divine Knowledge - Aatam Giaan...)||4|| (sggs 913).
- ਜੇ ਜੇ ਭੇਖ ਸੁ ਤਨ ਮੈਂ ਧਾਰੈ ॥ ਤੇ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਜਨ ਕਛੁ ਕੈ ਨ ਬਿਚਾਰੈ ॥: Je je bhekh su tan mai dhaarai. Te prabh jan kashoo kai na bichaarai: Those who adopt different religious garbs are never liked by the men of God (Guru Gobind Singh Jee, Bachitra Naatak, Dasam Granth, page 140, line 7).
snow be found on Sun? Can one chew iron with the teeth of wax, or live in a snow
house wearing robes of fire? Obviously not. Similarly, one can not captivate the
Divine Substance with his external religious robes condemned by His own Word (Gurbani)!
As revealed in the Gurbani, the only robes that can captivate Timeless Being are:
(1) humility, (2) forgiveness, and (3) sweet speech.
- ਜੇ ਜਾਣਸਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮੰ ਕਰਮੰ ॥ ਸਭਿ ਫੋਕਟ ਨਿਸਚਉ ਕਰਮੰ ॥: Je jaanas Brahamam karmam. Sabh Fokat nisachau karmam: If one knew the Nature of God, he would know that all of these beliefs and rituals are in vain (sggs 470).
- ਅਨਿਕ ਭੇਖ ਅਰੁ ਙਿਆਨ ਧਿਆਨ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਮਿਲਿਅਉ ਨ ਕੋਇ ॥: Anik bhekh ar giaan dhian mannhathi
miliaou n koi: By all sorts of religious robes, knowledge (ਧਰਮ-ਚਰਚਾ, etc.) and meditation iwith stubborn-mindedness, no one has ever met God (sggs 251).
- ਕਬੀਰ ਪ੍ਰੀਤਿ ਇਕ ਸਿਉ ਕੀਏ ਆਨ ਦੁਬਿਧਾ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਭਾਵੈ ਲਾਂਬੇ ਕੇਸ ਕਰੁ ਭਾਵੈ ਘਰਰਿ ਮੁਡਾਇ ॥: Kabeer preet ik siou keee aan dubidhaa jaai. Bhaavai laambe kes kar bhaavai gharari mudaai: Kabeer, when you are in love with the One Lord, duality departs. (Untill duality is departed) it does not matter if you keep long hair or if you shave your head bald (sggs 1365).
But, in Mann-Hatha, many still
keep on preaching that in order to find God one must wear external marks or symbols
such as sword or dagger, waistband (Camarbandh), ring, rosary, thread (Janeyu),
peculiar clothes, Tilak (mark on the forehead), cross, so on and so forth.
But God (in the Gurbani) rejects such claims since He being Subtle and Sublime
cannot be approached and comprehended through such gross, external wearings in stubbornness.
- ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਅਖਰੁ ਕਵਣੁ ਗੁਣੁ ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਮਣੀਆ ਮੰਤੁ ॥ ਕਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਵੇਸੋ ਹਉ ਕਰੀ ਜਿਤੁ ਵਸਿ ਆਵੈ ਕੰਤੁ ॥੧੨੬॥ ਨਿਵਣੁ ਸੁ ਅਖਰੁ ਖਵਣੁ ਗੁਣੁ ਜਿਹਬਾ ਮਣੀਆ ਮੰਤੁ ॥ ਏ ਤ੍ਰੈ ਭੈਣੇ ਵੇਸ ਕਰਿ ਤਾਂ ਵਸਿ ਆਵੀ ਕੰਤੁ ॥੧੨੭॥: Kavan su akhar kavan gun kavan su maneeaa mant. Kavan su veso haou
karee jit vas aavai kant. Niwan su akhar khavan gun jihba maneeaa mant. Ye trai
bhaine ves kar taa vas aavee kant ||127||: What is that word, what is that virtue, and
what is that magic Mantra? What are those clothes, which I can wear to captivate
my Husband Lord? ||126|| Humility is the word, forgiveness is the virtue, and sweet speech
is the magic mantra. Wear these three robes, O sister, and you will captivate
your Husband God ||127|| (sggs 1384).
According to the Gurbani, Baabaa Nanak also wore a sword.
But his sword was nothing but the Absolute Truth, secured in a scabbard made of
Divine Virtues, and sharpened on the grindstone of the Shabad!
Guru Gobind Singh Jee also compliments it by declaring that God is the Sword!
Further, Baabaa Nanak says that his ring and the rosary are the remembrance of
God's Name, and his Camarbandh is the contentment!
- ਬਰਤ ਨੇਮ ਤੀਰਥ ਸਹਿਤ ਗੰਗਾ ॥ ਜਲੁ ਹੇਵਤ ਭੂਖ ਅਰੁ ਨੰਗਾ ॥ ਪੂਜਾਚਾਰ ਕਰਤ ਮੇਲੰਗਾ ॥ ਚਕ੍ਰ ਕਰਮ ਤਿਲਕ ਖਾਟੰਗਾ ॥ ਦਰਸਨੁ ਭੇਟੇ ਬਿਨੁ ਸਤਸੰਗਾ ॥੧॥ ਹਠਿ ਨਿਗ੍ਰਹਿ ਅਤਿ ਰਹਤ ਬਿਟੰਗਾ ॥ ਹਉ ਰੋਗੁ ਬਿਆਪੈ ਚੁਕੈ ਨ ਭੰਗਾ ॥ ਕਾਮ ਕ੍ਰੋਧ ਅਤਿ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨ ਜਰੰਗਾ ॥ ਸੋ ਮੁਕਤੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਜਿਸੁ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਚੰਗਾ ॥੨॥੩॥੩੬॥: Barat nem teerath sahit gangaa ...: (To realize the Truth, some) go on fasts, make vows, and take pilgrimages to sacred shrines on the Ganges; (some) stand naked in the water, enduring hunger and poverty; (some) sit cross-legged, perform worship services; (some) apply religious symbols to their bodies, and ceremonial marks to their six limbs; but without joining the Sat Sangat, the True or Holy Congregation (its all useless). ||1|| (Some) stubbornly practice ritualistic postures, standing on their heads; (But by doing so) the disease of egotism afflicts more, and the lack of (spiritual life, ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ) within them does not diminish; they
burn in the fire of lust, anger and desire.
O Nanak, he alone is liberated (from lust,ange desire...), to whom the Good Satguru has met ||2||3||36|| (sggs 1305).
many external symbols or marks that Yogis applied to their bodies include keeping
a begging bowl ("Khappar") in their hands; a specially made head-covering;
smear body with ash and sit next to fire to keep the body alert ("Kaya
Karhaasan"); a special under wear called Langoti for celibacy,
and so on.
- ਤਰਕਸ ਤੀਰ ਕਮਾਣ ਸਾਂਗ ਤੇਗਬੰਦ ਗੁਣ ਧਾਤੁ ॥: Taskar
teer kamaan saang tegband gun dhaat: The pursuit
of virtue is my bow, arrow, quiver, sword and scabbard (sggs 16).
ਸਚ ਕੀ ਕਾਤੀ ਸਚੁ ਸਭੁ ਸਾਰੁ ॥ ਘਾੜਤ ਤਿਸ ਕੀ ਅਪਰ ਅਪਾਰ ॥ ਸਬਦੇ ਸਾਣ ਰਖਾਈ ਲਾਇ ॥ ਗੁਣ ਕੀ ਥੇਕੈ ਵਿਚਿ ਸਮਾਇ ॥: Sach kee kaatee sach sabh saar ..:
If the knife is of Truth, and the Truth is its steel iall steel, that knife's workmanship is incomparably
beautiful. (That knife) is sharpened on the grindstone of the Shabad. (consequently) it remains in the
scabbard of Virtue (sggs 956).
- ਤੀਰ ਤੁਹੀ ਸੈਹਥੀ ਤੁਹੀ ਤੁਹੀ ਤਬਰ ਤਲਵਾਰ ॥ ਨਾਮ ਤਿਹਾਰੋ ਜੋ ਜਪੈ ਭਏ ਸਿੰਧ ਭਵ ਪਾਰ ॥:Teer Tuhee saithee Tuhee tabar tarvaar. Naam tihaaro jo japai bhaye sindh bhav paar: O Lord, You are the sword, arrow, and spear; whoever remembers your Name crosses the world-ocean (Guru Gobind Singh Jee, Dasam Granth, page 1356).
- ਕਾਇਆ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਾ ਮਨੁ ਹੈ ਧੋਤੀ ॥ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਜਨੇਊ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਕੁਸਪਾਤੀ ॥: Kaaiaa
Brahma mann hai dhotee giyaan janeyoo dhiaan kuspaatee:
Let the body be (free of Bikaars, evil tendencies, etc.) the Brahmin, and let the (purified) mind be the loin-cloth; let spiritual
wisdom (ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਨਾਲ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ, etc.) be the sacred thread, and meditation (ਪ੍ਰਭੂ-ਚਰਨਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਜੁੜੀ ਹੋਈ ਸੁਰਤਿ, etc.) the ceremonial ring (sggs 355).
ਕਮਰਬੰਦੁ ਸੰਤੋਖ ਕਾ ਧਨੁ ਜੋਬਨੁ ਤੇਰਾ ਨਾਮੁ ॥੨॥: Camarbandh santokh kaa dhann joban teraa Naam ||2||:
I have made Contentment my waist-band (Camarbandh), and Your Name is my wealth and youth
- ਹਰਿ ਮਾਲਾ ਉਰ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਧਾਰੈ ॥ ਜਨਮ ਮਰਣ ਕਾ ਦੂਖੁ ਨਿਵਾਰੈ ॥੨॥:
Hari maalaa ur antar dhaare. Janam maran kaa dookh nivaarai ||2||: (That person who) enshrines the rosary of God's Name within the Heart,
is freed of the pains of birth and death cycle||2|| (sggs 388).
During the Sidh Gost, Baabaa
Nanak was asked by the Yogis to show them symbols he wore on his body. Baabaa
Nanak replied: "My inverted heart-lotus (Undhaou) turned up right is my
begging bowl; the awakening of the Soul is my head-covering; I keep my body alert
with mental control; the control of mind is my Langoti; truth, contentment
and self-discipline are my companions. O Nanak, by becoming the Gurmukh dwells on the Naam ||11|| "
(ਊਂਧਉ ਖਪਰੁ ਪੰਚ ਭੂ ਟੋਪੀ ॥ ਕਾਂਇਆ ਕੜਾਸਣੁ ਮਨੁ ਜਾਗੋਟੀ ॥ ਸਤੁ ਸੰਤੋਖੁ ਸੰਜਮੁ ਹੈ ਨਾਲਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਸਮਾਲਿ ॥੧੧॥: Oondhaou khappar panch bhoo topee. Kaaniaa karhaasan mann jaagotee. Sat santokh
sanjam hai naali. Nanak gurmukh Naam samaali ||11||, sggs 939).
verses as well as many more, Baabaa Nanak has made it very clear as to what symbols
a seeker ought to wear, and what we must do in the path of Sikhi! Since Baabaa
Nanak's Shabad is the Eternal Word of the Absolute Truth, it's Attall
(Permanent)! Only a concept or an idea can be changed. However, since the Eternal
Word (Shabad) is not a concept or an idea, it is unchangeable. The edict
of Baabaa Nanak is:
Baabaa Nanak cannot be more clear
than this. He did not approve of any peculiar religious wearing; because they
are nothing but the symptom of one's stubborn mindedness (spiritual ignorance).
Complementing the First Mahal, Guru Gobind Singh Jee declares that those who put
on peculiar religious wearing do not know God at all! Guru Gobind Singh Jee, therefore,
declared that, among other vices, one must abandon his stubborn mindedness if
he wants to Realize God.
- ਬਹੁ ਭੇਖ ਕੀਆ ਦੇਹੀ ਦੁਖੁ ਦੀਆ ॥: Bagu bhekh keeaa dehee dukh
deeaa: The more one wears religious robes, the more pain he causes his
body (sggs 467).
Service In Stubbornness
- Je je bhekh su
tan mai dhaarai. Te prabh jan kashoo kai na bichaarai:
Those who wear peculier clothes, remember that they are not familiar with God
(Guru Gobind Singh Jee, Bachitra Naatak, 6-53).
krodh hankaar lobh hatha moh na man siyu laavai:
Abandon from your mind lust, anger, self-conceit, greed, stubborn mindedness,
and emotional attachment (Guru Gobind Singh Jee, Raamkalee, 3-1).
- ਸੀਲ ਜਤ ਕੀ ਕਛ ਪਹਰਿ ਪਕੜੋ ਹਥਿਆਰਾ ।: Seel
jat kee kachh pahiri Wear the Kachh (short or Kachheraa) of Goodness and Celibacy. (Bhai Gurdas, Vaar
41, Paurhee 15).
many chant calculated rounds of beads, many read calculated Banis or Paaths,
many perform calculated prayers, and so on. All calculations are in false ego
or Maya (Manmukhtaa). This is the nature of the worldly, calculating mind.
This is the way the mind free to escape through the defiled nine-holes of our
body thinks. The Gurbani declares that no one can Realize God by such calculations
- ਤੂੰ ਗਣਤੈ ਕਿਨੈ ਨ ਪਾਇਓ ਸਚੇ ਅਲਖ ਅਪਾਰਾ ॥: Toon ganatai kinai na paaio sache
alakh apaaraa: No one has attained You by clever calculations, O True,
Unseen and Infinite Being (sggs 140).
- ਹਉਮੈ ਸਭਾ ਗਣਤ ਹੈ ਗਣਤੈ ਨਉ ਸੁਖੁ ਨਾਹਿ ॥: Haumai sabhaa ganat hai ganatai naou sukh naahi: All accounting is in egotism, in these, there is no Peace (sggs 36).
God cannot be calculated, this sort of businesslike stubborn practice is rejected
by the Gurbani. Why? Because such practices can never transform our mind enchanted
with unproductive thought-wanderings. Just few short
prayers (Ardaas), some chanting, some Mantra recitation with rosary
are totally insufficient. This sort of meditation cannot change
us. Our psychological ego is so powerful that unbroken efforts are needed. If
we practice constantly, only then negative emotions of mind will disappear.
- ਗਣਤੈ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਨ ਪਾਈਐ ਦੂਜੈ ਭਰਮੀਤਾ ॥: Ganatai prabhoo na paaeeai doojai bharmeetaa:
God cannot be obtained by counting; (by doing so the man only) wanders in duality or Maya (sggs 510).
ਤੂ ਕਰਤਾ ਆਪਿ ਅਗਣਤੁ ਹੈ ਸਭੁ ਜਗੁ ਵਿਚਿ ਗਣਤੈ ॥: Too karata aapi aganat hai sabh jagg vichi ganatai:
You Yourself, O Creator, are incalculable, while the entire world is within the realm of calculation (sggs 314).
Sikhi is the
game of Sahaj Avasthaa or Prema-Bhagti. The Shabad (Naam)
cannot be tasted unless we are spontaneously and infinitely in love with the Supreme
Self. Accordingly, the Gurbani teaches us to spontaneously keep God's Name in
the heart while sitting, standing, walking, eating, working, and so on. To put
it otherwise, by becoming a Gurmukh (Spiritual Being), the sincere seeker
plunges headlong into Shabad-Surti or God Consciousness; he does not calculate
his Bhagti or meditation.
Reading And Listening Gurbani
- ਗਣਤੈ ਸੇਵ ਨ ਹੋਵਈ ਕੀਤਾ ਥਾਇ ਨ ਪਾਇ ॥ ਸਬਦੈ ਸਾਦੁ ਨ ਆਇਓ ਸਚਿ ਨ ਲਗੋ ਭਾਉ ॥ ਸਤਿਗੁਰੁ ਪਿਆਰਾ ਨ ਲਗਈ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਆਵੈ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਜੇ ਇਕ ਵਿਖ ਅਗਾਹਾ ਭਰੇ ਤਾਂ ਦਸ ਵਿਖਾਂ ਪਿਛਾਹਾ ਜਾਇ ॥: Gantai
sev n hovaee keetaa thaai n paai ...: Calculated service is not service
at all, and what is done is not approved (ਸਫਲ, ਕਬੂਲ). The flavor of the Shabad is not tasted if the mortal is not in love with God. The stubborn-minded
person does not even like the Satguru; he comes and goes (in his stubborness). (But by doing so - coming and going in stubborness - he does experience any any spiritual progress because) he
takes one step forward, and ten steps back (sggs 1246).
- ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਸਗਲੀ ਗਣਤ ਮਿਟਾਵੈ ॥: Gurmukhi
sagalee ganat mitaavai: The Gurmukh erases all calculations (sggs 942).
- ਹਉਮੈ ਗਣਤ ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਨਿਵਾਰੇ ॥: Haoumai
ganat gur sabadi nivaare: Egotistic or mental calculations are relieved
through the Shabad (sggs 1065).
- ਕਬੀਰ ਜਪਨੀ ਕਾਠ ਕੀ ਕਿਆ ਦਿਖਲਾਵਹਿ ਲੋਇ ॥ ਹਿਰਦੈ ਰਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਹੀ ਇਹ ਜਪਨੀ ਕਿਆ ਹੋਇ ॥੭੫॥: Kabeer japnee kaath
kee kiaa dikhlaavahi loi. Hirdai Naam n chetahee ih japnee kiaa hoi ||75||:
Kabeer, why do you show other people your rosary beads? You do not remember God
in your heart, so what use is this rosary (ਹੱਥ ਵਿਚ ਫੜੀ ਹੋਈ) to you? ||75|| (sggs 1368).
Today, in the Gurdawaaraa the page to page reading of Sri
Guru Granth Sahib called Akhand-Paath is sold to the devotees in a businesslike
manner. In mental stubbornness, many go and pay these Pujaarees dearly,
or hire Paathees (professional Gurbani readers) to perform Akhand-Paath in their homes. Now, people can also buy Akhand Paath over the
Internet! Also, many read the Gurbani themselves in ritualistic, and robotic manner. However, the Gurbani never tires of reminding us that this type of
practice has nothing to do with the Prema-Bhagti or Naam-Simran.
revealed in the Gurbani, the mind bound by the stubbornness or three dispositions
- the three modes of Maya: Taamas, Raajas, and Saatav - goes
weary by reading and reciting religious books. But, as further as pointed out
by the Gurbani, we can never realize the Supreme Essence by doing so. Thus, mere
reading of countless Paath or Akhand-Paath in duality are of no
avail, since the Pure Being cannot be reached by such practices.
- ਅਖਰ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਭੁਲੀਐ ਭੇਖੀ ਬਹੁਤੁ ਅਭਿਮਾਨੁ ॥ Akhar parr parr bhuleeai bhekhee bahutu abhimaan: (In spite of) Reading books over and over again, people make mistakes (due the pride of this reading); wearing of religious robes also gives rise to much pride (in the mind). (sggs 61).
- ਕਿਆ ਪੜੀਐ ਕਿਆ ਗੁਨੀਐ ॥ ਕਿਆ ਬੇਦ ਪੁਰਾਨਾਂ ਸੁਨੀਐ ॥ ਪੜੇ ਸੁਨੇ ਕਿਆ ਹੋਈ ॥ ਜਉ ਸਹਜ ਨ ਮਿਲਿਓ ਸੋਈ ॥੧॥: Kiaa parheeai kiaa guneeai ...: What use is it to read, and what use is it to study? What use is it to listen to the scriptures? What use is reading and listening, if (Truth ) is not naturally (spontaneously, Sahaj ਤੌਰ ਤੇ, ਕੁਦਰਤੀ ਨਤੀਜੇ ਦੇ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ, ਆਤਮਕ ਅਡੋਲਤਾ ਦੇ ਤੌਰ ਤੇ, etc.,) realized? ||1|| (sggs 655).
- ਅਕਲੀ ਪੜ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ਕੈ ਬੁਝੀਐ ਅਕਲੀ ਕੀਚੈ ਦਾਨੁ ॥ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਆਖੈ ਰਾਹੁ ਏਹੁ ਹੋਰਿ ਗਲਾਂ ਸੈਤਾਨੁ ॥੧॥: Aklee parh kai bujheeyai aklee keejai daan. Nanak aakhai raah eho hor gallan saitaan ||1||: One should read (Bani) with intelligence, and then understand its real essence (i.e., assimilate it). Also, one should use intelligence in giving charity. Says Nanak, this is the True Path; other things lead to Satanic life ||1|| (sggs 1245).
the Pujaaree or priest group is making a good return business out of all
this Karamkaand (Jhoothaa Sodaa)! Why are they so successful in
cheating people? Because people want something as Sublime as God and want it cheaply.
As a result, they put themselves in a position to be easily cheated. In other
words, a stubborn person has no sense of consequences of
- ਮੂਰਖਿ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਦੂਜਾ ਭਾਉ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇਆ॥ ਬਹੁ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਵੈ ਦੁਖੁ ਸਬਾਇਆ ॥: Parh parh doojaa bhaav driraaiaa. Bahu karak kamaavai dukh sabaaiaa: The fool reads and reads, but holds tight to duality. He performs all sorts of rituals, but still suffers terrible pain (sggs 424).
- ਸਲੋਕੁ ਮਃ ੧ ॥ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਗਡੀ ਲਦੀਅਹਿ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਭਰੀਅਹਿ ਸਾਥ ॥ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਬੇੜੀ ਪਾਈਐ ਪੜਿ ਪੜਿ ਗਡੀਅਹਿ ਖਾਤ ॥ ਪੜੀਅਹਿ ਜੇਤੇ ਬਰਸ ਬਰਸ ਪੜੀਅਹਿ ਜੇਤੇ ਮਾਸ ॥ ਪੜੀਐ ਜੇਤੀ ਆਰਜਾ ਪੜੀਅਹਿ ਜੇਤੇ ਸਾਸ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਲੇਖੈ ਇਕ ਗਲ ਹੋਰੁ ਹਉਮੈ ਝਖਣਾ ਝਾਖ ॥੧॥: Slok M: 1 || Parri parri gaddee laddeeahi parri parri bhareeahi saath ...: Slok M: 1. You may read and read loads of books; you may read and study vast multitudes of books. You may read and read boat-loads of books; you may read and read and fill pits with them (ਕਈ ਖਾਤੇ ਪੂਰੇ ਜਾ ਸਕਣ). You may read them year after year; you may read them as many months are there. You may read them all your life; you may read them with every breath. O Nanak, only one thing is of any account (the Truth, etc.), everything else is useless babbling and idle talk in ego ||1|| (sggs 467).
As we can appreciate, the Gurbani makes it very clear that by reading
religious books, one cannot catch God; also, by speaking and talking, His limits
cannot be found. The purpose of reading or listening the Gurbani (or any other scripture for that matter) is to develop
Divine Understanding (Aatam-Giaan), and then act upon it. If that does not
happen, then, there is no difference between a human being engaged in reading
or listening to scriptures and a beast engaged in filling his belly. The Gurbani
- ਏਕੋ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਪੰਡਿਤ ਸੁਣਿ ਸਿਖੁ ਸਚੁ ਸੋਈ ॥ ਦੂਜੈ ਭਾਇ ਜੇਤਾ ਪੜਹਿ ਪੜਤ ਗੁਣਤ ਸਦਾ ਦੁਖੁ ਹੋਈ ॥੧॥: Eko naam nidhaan pandit suni
sikh sach soee. Doojai bhaai jetaa parhahi parhat gunat sadaa dukh hoee ||1||:
The One Name is the treasure (of everythng), O Pandit. Listen to it, and learn this Truth (to meditate on the Naam, Simran, etc.). No matter
what you read in duality (in the love Maya), reading and contemplating it, you only continue
to suffer ||1|| (sggs 492).
- ਸਲੋਕੁ ਮਃ ੩ ॥ ਪੜਣਾ ਗੁੜਣਾ ਸੰਸਾਰ ਕੀ ਕਾਰ ਹੈ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਵਿਕਾਰੁ ॥ ਹਉਮੈ ਵਿਚਿ ਸਭਿ ਪੜਿ ਥਕੇ ਦੂਜੈ ਭਾਇ ਖੁਆਰੁ ॥ ਸੋ ਪੜਿਆ ਸੋ ਪੰਡਿਤੁ ਬੀਨਾ ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਕਰੇ ਵੀਚਾਰੁ ॥ ਅੰਦਰੁ ਖੋਜੈ ਤਤੁ ਲਹੈ ਪਾਏ ਮੋਖ ਦੁਆਰੁ ॥ ਗੁਣ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਸਹਜਿ ਕਰੇ ਵੀਚਾਰੁ ॥ ਧੰਨੁ ਵਾਪਾਰੀ ਨਾਨਕਾ ਜਿਸੁ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਅਧਾਰੁ ॥੧॥: Slok M: 3|| Parhnaa gunanaa sansaar kee karr hai andar trisnaa vikaar ...: Slok M: 3. Reading and studying (have become) just worldly pursuits, (but still) greed and corruption remain present within. Reading in egotism, all have grown weary; through the love of duality (Maya), they are ruined. He alone is educated, and he alone is a wise Pandit, who reflects and contemplates the Gur-Shabad (i.e., consider that person Pandit - ਉਸ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਨੂੰ ਪੰਡਿਤ ਸਮਝੋ). He searches within himself, and finds the True Essence within; he attains the Door of Salvation. He finds God, the Treasure of Excellence, and contemplates with Sahaj (ਆਤਮਕ ਅਡੋਲਤਾ ਵਿਚ ਟਿਕ ਕੇ, Natural State of Being, etc.). Blessed is the trader (of Naam, the Name), O Nanak, who, as a Gurmukh (Spiritual Being, etc.), takes the Name as his only Support ||1|| (sggs 650).
Kirtan In Stubbornness
- ਬਿਨੁ ਬੂਝੇ ਪਸੂ ਭਏ ਬੇਤਾਲੇ ॥੬॥: Bin boojhe pasu bhaye betaale: Binu boojhai pasu bhaye betaale ||6||: Without understanding, people become beast (-nature) and demon ||6|| (sggs 224).
- ਗੁਰਮਤਿ ਸੁਨਿ ਕਛੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨ ਉਪਜਿਓ ਪਸੁ ਜਿਉ ਉਦਰੁ ਭਰਉ ॥: Gurmati suni kashu giaan n upjio pasu jiou udar bharaou: Despite listening to the Gurmati (Shabad-Giaan, Divine Teaching of the Gur-Shabad, etc.), (if) no spiritual wisdom (ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਕੁਝ ਭੀ ਸੂਝ) wells up within (me); (then it would be) like a beast (routinely) filling its belly (sggs 685).
In general, Kirtan is sung in greed and heard to gratify ears - ਕੰਨ ਰਸ - (with "rare" exceptions) at religious places, religious ceremonies, homes, radios, televisions, tape-players, CD-players, Internet, and so on.
As per the Gurbani, is it the purpose or definition of Kirtan? Not according to the Gurbani!
Kirtan is defined in the Gurbani as Viaakhiaa of the Gurbani, of the One... (Viaakhiaa - ਵਿਆਖਿਆ: ਬਖ੍ਯ੍ਯਾਨੁ, commentary, explanation, interpretation, definition, annotation, elucidation...).
- ਅਨਦਿਨੁ ਕੀਰਤਨੁ ਕੇਵਲ ਬਖ੍ਯ੍ਯਾਨੁ ॥: Andinu Keertanu keval bakhyaanu (sggs 281).
other words, the only purpose of Kirtan is to annihilate the ego-mind through the Shabad-Vichaar.
Does that happen? Not "even in dreams"! To the contrary, world is full of corruption,
danger, conflicts and animosity. As evident in the society, more and more Raagees
(commercial or for-hire Kirtan singers) are coming into the market place, more
and more listeners are falling into their trend, but their minds are becoming
more crooked and restless. What a paradox! Why? The Gurbani answers as follows:
The Kirtan is Bhagti (Understaning the Gurmat). Kirtan performed in Mann-Hatha (greed
and lust) for making money as we see at religious gathering does not constitute
Bhagti or Naam-Simran or Shabad-Vichaar. That's simply a worldly trade. The Gurbani warns us that the mystery of the
Shabad can only be grasped through it's proper understanding.
- ਇਕਿ ਗਾਵਤ ਰਹੇ ਮਨਿ ਸਾਦੁ ਨ ਪਾਇ ॥ ਹਉਮੈ ਵਿਚਿ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਬਿਰਥਾ ਜਾਇ ॥: Ik gaavat rahe mann saad na paai. Haumai vich gaavahi birathaa jaai: Some sing on and on, but their minds do not find happiness. In egotism, they sing, but it is all wasted uselessly (sggs 158).
- ਮਨਿ ਪਰਤੀਤਿ ਨ ਆਈਆ ਸਹਜਿ ਨ ਲਗੋ ਭਾਉ ॥ ਸਬਦੈ ਸਾਦੁ ਨ ਪਾਇਓ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਿਆ ਗੁਣ ਗਾਇ ॥: Mann
parteet na aaeeaa sahaji n lago bhaaou. Shabade saad na paaio mannhathi kiaa
gun gaai: O mind, you have no conviction (of Truth, ਹਰੀ ਦੀ ਹੋਂਦ ਦੀ, etc.) and you have not embraced love (for
the Truth) with Sahaj (Natura State of Being, ਅਡੋਲਤਾ, etc.). You do not enjoy the sublime taste of the Shabad - what (is the use of) singing Praises
of God (ਸਿਫ਼ਤਿ-ਸਾਲਾਹ) stubborn-mindedly? (sggs 549).
Due to lack or absent of faith
and love, the Raagees think, feel, and behave like movie stars; consequently,
they perform and charge for their performance in a concert like manner. Apparently,
they have taken this word "Kirtan" out of context and put the trademark of music
on the Gur-Shabad. As a result, Shabad-Vichaar almost has been
turned into a club activity. They memorize the Gurbani like a parrot, and sing
it in attractive melody or Taals; however, it all goes in vain because
they do it in greed and selfishness. The edict of the Gurbani is:
- ਭਗਤਿ ਨਾਰਦੀ ਰਿਦੈ ਨ ਆਈ ਕਾਛਿ ਕੂਛਿ ਤਨੁ ਦੀਨਾ ॥ ਰਾਗ ਰਾਗਨੀ ਡਿੰਭ ਹੋਇ ਬੈਠਾ ਉਨਿ ਹਰਿ ਪਹਿ ਕਿਆ ਲੀਨਾ ॥੩॥: Bhagati Naaradee ridai n aaee kaash koosh tanu deenaa. Raag raagnee bhind hoyi bethaa un Har pahi kiyaa leenaa ||3||: That person who adorns his body (with religious symbols, marks, etc.), but loving devotional worship ("ਭਗਤਿ ਨਾਰਦੀ" - Naarad like loving devotion or ਪ੍ਰੇਮਾ-ਭਗਤੀ) does not enter into his heart; he sits and play music, but he sits as a hypocrite (ਪਖੰਡ ਦੀ ਮੂਰਤ); what can such person obtain from the Lord? (i.e., nothing) ||3|| (sggs 654).
To illustrate the point, once it so
happened that right after the Kirtan Divaan, a famous Raagee Jathaa
had a fit with the host. They accused the host for not paying them enough money
for the Kirtan they had just performed in his house. On the contrary, during the
Kirtan the same Raagee had been preaching the Sangat not to be greedy
and selfish in life. However, as soon as the Kirtan was over, they were fighting
with the host for not paying them big buck! Finally, someone from the congregation
politely asked them why they were asking for so much money which the host was
financial unable to pay. The ring leader of the Raagee Jathaa replied:
"Do you know the difference in the going rate for actor Amitaabh Bachan and the
other actors in India?" Since the Kirtan has become nothing more than a mundane
business, he was implying that he was equal to the topnotch actor so he should
be paid high price for his Kirtan performance. This is the corruption - "Kanik
Kaamini" - or greed and lust the Gurbani so much
speak of. The Gurbani wants us to know that this is not the Kirtan the Gurmat
talks about. Any Kirtan performed and heard in such hypocrisy or egoism
(stubborn mindedness) is useless, thus rejected by the the Gurbani. Because, such Kirtan has nothing to do with the
Bhagti or Naam-Simran or Shabad-Vichaar, consequently, it only results in accumulating
more mental "filth". This is the reason the false ego in both Raagees
and their listeners is on the rampant!
- ਰੋਟੀਆ ਕਾਰਣਿ ਪੂਰਹਿ ਤਾਲ ॥: Roteeyaan Kaaran poorahi taal: For the sake of bread, they perform melodiously (sggs 465).
- ਪਉੜੀ ॥ ਸਚਾ ਅਲਖ ਅਭੇਉ ਹਠਿ ਨ ਪਤੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਗਾਵਹਿ ਰਾਗ ਪਰੀਆ ਰਾਗਿ ਨ ਭੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਨਚਿ ਨਚਿ ਪੂਰਹਿ ਤਾਲ ਭਗਤਿ ਨ ਕੀਜਈ ॥ ਇਕਿ ਅੰਨੁ ਨ ਖਾਹਿ ਮੂਰਖ ਤਿਨਾ ਕਿਆ ਕੀਜਈ ॥ ਤ੍ਰਿਸਨਾ ਹੋਈ ਬਹੁਤੁ ਕਿਵੈ ਨ ਧੀਜਈ ॥ ਕਰਮ ਵਧਹਿ ਕੈ ਲੋਅ ਖਪਿ ਮਰੀਜਈ ॥ ਲਾਹਾ ਨਾਮੁ ਸੰਸਾਰਿ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪੀਜਈ ॥ ਹਰਿ ਭਗਤੀ ਅਸਨੇਹਿ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਘੀਜਈ ॥੧੭॥: Pourree || Sachaa alakh abheou hathi n pateejaee ...: Pourree. The True, Unseen, Mysterious (God) is not won over by stubbornness. Some sing according to traditional Raag, but the Lord is not pleased by these Raag. Some dance and dance in perfect beat, but this is not the way of worship (either). Some refuse to eat; (tell me) what can be done with these fools? (i.e., how can it be explained to them that the Truth is not realized like this, etc.). By such acts, their thirst (desires) greatly increase; (consequently) nothing (done in stubbornness) can bring them satisfaction. Somany are tied down by rituals; they hassle themselves to death. In this world, the true profit (ਨਾਮ ਹੀ ਖੱਟੀ) comes by drinking in the Amrit Naam, Name of the Lord. By becoming the Gurmukh, (one) attains (the Bliss of) Bhagti (devotion) of the Lord ||17|| (sggs 1285).
- ਕੋਈ ਗਾਵੈ ਰਾਗੀ ਨਾਦੀ ਬੇਦੀ ਬਹੁ ਭਾਤਿ ਕਰਿ ਨਹੀ ਹਰਿ ਹਰਿ ਭੀਜੈ ਰਾਮ ਰਾਜੇ ॥: Koyee gaavai raagee naadee bedee bahu bhant kar nahee Har Har bheejai Raam Rajai: Some sing of Lord' glories through musical Ragas, through the Naad (conch, etc.), through the Vedas, and in so many other ways. But the Lord is not pleased by these (sggs 450).
- ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਰਾਗ ਸੁਆਦ ਅਨ ਤਿਆਗੇ ॥: Gurmukhi raag suyaad ann tiyaagai: The Gurmukh renounces other "Raag" and tastes. (sggs 415).
it goes without saying that the Kirtan is not to be taken as the intellectual
or recreational pastime; nor it is to be taken as a concert or a club activity
as we witness at the organized religious gatherings nowadays. Singing or listening
Kirtan in this manner for the sake of pleasing the taste of one's senses is unavailing;
because it only aids in enticing the senses further. It is like supplying more
fuel to a burning blaze! Hence the Kirtan performed in any manner other than the Gurbani's intention results in added mental agitation, disturbance, discontentment
and restlessness (impurity). The realm of Truth (Sach Khand), as mentioned
in the Gurbani, is way beyond all such circus of mental activities (Karamkaand).
- ਕਹਉ ਕਹਾ ਅਪਨੀ ਅਧਮਾਈ ॥ ਉਰਝਿਓ ਕਨਕ ਕਾਮਨੀ ਕੇ ਰਸ ਨਹ ਕੀਰਤਿ ਪ੍ਰਭ ਗਾਈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Kahaou
kahaa apnee adhmaaee. Urjgio kanak kaamnee ke ras nah keerati prabh gaaee ||1||Rahaoou||:
What can I say about my base nature (ਨੀਚਤਾ)? (My mind) remains entangled in the love of gold and women (ਧਨ-ਪਦਾਰਥ ਅਤੇ ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀ ਦੇ ਰਸਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਫਸਿਆ ਰਹਿਣਾ),
and I have not sung the Kirtan of God's Praises (ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਫ਼ਤਿ-ਸਾਲਾਹ) ||1||Pause|| (sggs 718).
- ਨੈਨ ਦੇਖਿ ਪਤੰਗੁ ਉਰਝੈ ਪਸੁ ਨ ਦੇਖੈ ਆਗਿ ॥ ਕਾਲ ਫਾਸ ਨ ਮੁਗਧੁ ਚੇਤੈ ਕਨਿਕ ਕਾਮਿਨਿ ਲਾਗਿ ॥੨॥: Nain dekh patang urjhai pasu na dekhai aagi. Kaal phaas
na mugadh chetai kanik kaamini laagi ||2||: The moth sees (fire, light of a lamp, etc.) with its eyes, but
it still becomes entangled in it. Similarly, attached to gold and woman (ਧਨ-ਪਦਾਰਥ ਅਤੇ ਇਸਤ੍ਰੀ ਦੇ ਰਸਾਂ ਵਿਚ ਹੀ ਫਸਿਆ ਰਹਿਣਾ), the
fool does not think of the noose of Death ||2|| (sggs 482).
The Gurmat cannot
be more clear than this. Apparently, the true meaning of the Kirtan has been totally derailed by our greed and
Mann-Hatha. Realization of the Amrit (Immortality) of the Naam
or God-consciousness is possible only through the sincere practice of the Shabad-Kamaaee,
not by mere mechanical singing or hearing of the Kirtan in a business like manner
("Badhaa chattee jo bhare naa gun naa upkaar"). This is the reason hypocrite
Raagees and their listeners only remain ego or body-conscious, rather than
becoming situated at the Higher Taste: God-consciousness or Shabad-Surti.
- ਰਾਗ ਨਾਦ ਸਭ ਕੋ ਸੁਣੈ ਸਬਦ ਸੁਰਤਿ ਸਮਝੈ ਵਿਰਲੋਈ ।॥: Raag naad sabh ko sunai sabad surti samjahi virloee: Everybody just listen to "Raag and Naad", but a very rare one understands Shabad-Surti (Bhai Gurdaas, Vaar 15, Paurree 16).
- ਬਿਲਾਵਲੁ ਤਬ ਹੀ ਕੀਜੀਐ ਜਬ ਮੁਖਿ ਹੋਵੈ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਰਾਗ ਨਾਦ ਸਬਦਿ ਸੋਹਣੇ ਜਾ ਲਾਗੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥ ਰਾਗ ਨਾਦ ਛੋਡਿ ਹਰਿ ਸੇਵੀਐ ਤਾ ਦਰਗਹ ਪਾਈਐ ਮਾਨੁ ॥: Bilaaval tab hee keejeeyai jab mukhi hovai Raam. Raag naad Shabadi sohane jaa laagai sahaji dhiaan...: When the Naam (Naam = Giaan or Divine Knowledge obtained after Understanding the Gurbani...) is in your mouth, then sing the Bilaaval (Raagees define Bilaaval as the name of a Raga. The word "Bilaabal" also means perfect Joy or bliss. accordingly, this verse can also be interpretd as: the perfect bliss can be experienced only if the Lord's Name is in the mouth). The melody and music are beautiful only when, through the (Gur-) Shabad, "Sahaji Dhiaan" is experienced, within (i.e., contemplation, self-communication, Reflection, attention - ਸੁਰਤ, ਬਿਰਤੀ - by means of the Natural State of Being ...). Forsaking the Raag and Naad, serve the Lord (by focusing on the Naam); then the Honor in the Court of the Lord is obtained.. (sggs 849).
Cooking Separate Food In Stubbornness
- ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਰਾਗ ਸੁਆਦ ਅਨ ਤਿਆਗੇ ॥ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਭਗਤੀ ਜਾਗੇ ॥ ਅਨਹਦ ਸੁਣਿ ਮਾਨਿਆ ਸਬਦੁ ਵੀਚਾਰੀ ॥ ਆਤਮੁ ਚੀਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਿ ਭਏ ਨਿਰੰਕਾਰੀ ॥੭॥: Gurmukhi raag suaad ann tiaagai. Gurmukh ihu manu bhagti jaagai. Anhad suni maaniaa Shabad veechaaree. Aatamu cheen bhae nirankaaree||7||: The Gurmukh renounces other "Raag" and tastes. By becoming the Gurmukh, this mind is awakened to Bhagti (remains alert from Maya's spell, etc.). (That person who) contemplates the Shabad (Shabad-Vichaar), hearing the unstruck sound current (of the Inner Joy - ਅੰਦਰਲੇ ਆਤਮਕ ਖੇੜੇ ਦੇ) accepts it (becomes attuned to the unstruck sound current within...). Understanding (his Real self) Soul, he becomes God-like (ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਰੂਪ). ||7|| (sggs 415).
- ਬਧਾ ਚਟੀ ਜੋ ਭਰੇ ਨਾ ਗੁਣੁ ਨਾ ਉਪਕਾਰੁ ॥ ਸੇਤੀ ਖੁਸੀ ਸਵਾਰੀਐ ਨਾਨਕ ਕਾਰਜੁ ਸਾਰੁ ॥੩॥: Badhaa chattee jo bhare naa gun naa upkaar. Sethee khusee savaareeai Nanak kaaraj saar ||3||: Paying a fine under pressure ( ਜੋ ਮਨੁੱਖ ਕੋਈ ਕੰਮ ਬੱਧਾ-ਰੁੱਧਾ ਕਰੇ - doing something under pressure, compulsion, obligation, constraints, helplessness, etc., such as performing for the sake of making money or living, etc.,) does not bring either merit or goodness (to oneself or to others). That alone is a good deed, O Nanak, which is done happily (ਖ਼ੁਸ਼ੀ ਨਾਲ). ||3|| (sggs 787).
Before and during the time of Baabaa Nanak, Brahmins or Pundits in their stubborn mindedness
or fanaticism used to cook their own food separately. They also used their on
utensils and kitchens. Many still do! It seems like their is a new class of Sikhs
as well: the Brahamin Sikhs, who also cook their separate food!
many fanatics will refuse to partake in the Langar (common kitchen) and
eat with rest of the Sangat. Instead, they cook their own food in their
separate utensils and kitchens. This is one of the burning examples of a stubborn
minded person's display of ignorance and deluded ego.
The Gurbani thunders
that no one would be helped along with one's nonsense rituals stemming from his
mental concoctions, doubts, superstitions and fear. Accordingly, the
Gurbani repudiates such useless practices, because they will not help anybody find
It's not that the Gurbani is only telling Brahmins or Pundits
not to practice such worthless rituals, it is also urging the Sikhs as well! If
a Sikh does than why wouldn't a Brahmin be helped along with his rituals,
or a Muslim or a Christian or a Yogi with his? How absurd! The fact of the matter
is that the Gurbani's instructions are for the good of all mankind; including
Sikhs as well.
Yet, many self-appointed saints and Baabaas
(and their followers), Sikh and non-Sikh alike, fanatically cook their own food;
using their separate utensils and kitchens! Although they preach or attend the
congregations at religious gatherings, but refuse to eat food from the Langar,
or share their own cooking with others. Apparently, when it
comes to God and Spiritual matters, such Manmukhs do not know the difference
between the ear and the elbow! According to the Gurbani, whosoever practices
such absurd ritual is a fanatic, ignorant or Manmukh; because he does not
understand the true meaning of the Gur-Shabad, or on account of his greed he does not care.
- ਉਦਮੁ ਕਰਿ ਲਾਗੇ ਬਹੁ ਭਾਤੀ ਬਿਚਰਹਿ ਅਨਿਕ ਸਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਬਹੁ ਖਟੂਆ ॥ ਭਸਮ ਲਗਾਇ ਤੀਰਥ ਬਹੁ ਭ੍ਰਮਤੇ ਸੂਖਮ ਦੇਹ ਬੰਧਹਿ ਬਹੁ ਜਟੂਆ ॥ ਬਿਨੁ ਹਰਿ ਭਜਨ ਸਗਲ ਦੁਖ ਪਾਵਤ ਜਿਉ ਪ੍ਰੇਮ ਬਢਾਇ ਸੂਤ ਕੇ ਹਟੂਆ ॥ ਪੂਜਾ ਚਕ੍ਰ ਕਰਤ ਸੋਮਪਾਕਾ ਅਨਿਕ ਭਾਂਤਿ ਥਾਟਹਿ ਕਰਿ ਥਟੂਆ ॥੨॥੧੧॥੨੦॥: Uddam kar laage bahu bhantee ...: (Many Men) are
engaged in making efforts many ways. They reflect upon the various aspects
of the six Shaastras. Rubbing ashes all over their bodies, many wander around
at the various sacred shrines of pilgrimage; they fast until their bodies
are emaciated, and braid their hair into tangled messes. Many perform worship ceremonies, draw ritual marks on their bodies,
cook their own food fanatically (ਸੁੱਚ ਦੀ ਖ਼ਾਤਰ), and make pompous shows of themselves in all
sorts of ways. Without devotional
worship of the Lord, they all suffer in pain, caught in the tangled web of
their love (of all their pompous shows - ਅਡੰਬਰ). ||2||11||20|| (sggs 1389).
- ਮਾਣਸ ਖਾਣੇ ਕਰਹਿ ਨਿਵਾਜ ॥ ਛੁਰੀ ਵਗਾਇਨਿ ਤਿਨ ਗਲਿ ਤਾਗ ॥ ਤਿਨ ਘਰਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮਣ ਪੂਰਹਿ ਨਾਦ ॥ ਉਨ੍ਹ੍ਹਾ ਭਿ ਆਵਹਿ ਓਈ ਸਾਦ ॥ ਕੂੜੀ ਰਾਸਿ ਕੂੜਾ ਵਾਪਾਰੁ ॥ ਕੂੜੁ ਬੋਲਿ ਕਰਹਿ ਆਹਾਰੁ ॥ ਸਰਮ ਧਰਮ ਕਾ ਡੇਰਾ ਦੂਰਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਕੂੜੁ ਰਹਿਆ ਭਰਪੂਰਿ ॥ ਮਥੈ ਟਿਕਾ ਤੇੜਿ ਧੋਤੀ ਕਖਾਈ ॥ ਹਥਿ ਛੁਰੀ ਜਗਤ ਕਾਸਾਈ ॥ ਨੀਲ ਵਸਤ੍ਰ ਪਹਿਰਿ ਹੋਵਹਿ ਪਰਵਾਣੁ ॥ ਮਲੇਛ ਧਾਨੁ ਲੇ ਪੂਜਹਿ ਪੁਰਾਣੁ ॥ ਅਭਾਖਿਆ ਕਾ ਕੁਠਾ ਬਕਰਾ ਖਾਣਾ ॥ ਚਉਕੇ ਉਪਰਿ ਕਿਸੈ ਨ ਜਾਣਾ ॥ ਦੇ ਕੈ ਚਉਕਾ ਕਢੀ ਕਾਰ ॥ ਉਪਰਿ ਆਇ ਬੈਠੇ ਕੂੜਿਆਰ ॥ ਮਤੁ ਭਿਟੈ ਵੇ ਮਤੁ ਭਿਟੈ ॥ ਇਹੁ ਅੰਨੁ ਅਸਾਡਾ ਫਿਟੈ ॥ ਤਨਿ ਫਿਟੈ ਫੇੜ ਕਰੇਨਿ ॥ ਮਨਿ ਜੂਠੈ ਚੁਲੀ ਭਰੇਨਿ ॥ ਕਹੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਚੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ॥ ਸੁਚਿ ਹੋਵੈ ਤਾ ਸਚੁ ਪਾਈਐ ॥੨॥: Maanas khaane karahi nivaaj ...: The man-eaters (i.e., the corrupt muslim priests and rulers) say their prayers (Nivaaj). (Many employees of these Muslim rulers were non-Muslims: Khatrees etc.) who wield the knife (i.e., exploit the poor, commit evil deeds, etc. ) and wear the sacred thread around their necks. In their homes (those non-Muslim employees who exploited poor), the Brahmins go and sound the conch. They too have the same taste (that of the non-Muslim employees who exploited poor). False is their capital, and false is their trade. Speaking falsehood, they take their food (or earn their living). The home of modesty and Dharma is far from them (i.e. they do not practice modesty and Dharma). O Nanak, they are totally permeated with falsehood. The sacred marks are on their foreheads, and the saffron loin-cloths are around their waists; in their hands they hold the knives - they are the butchers of the world (they commit evil deeds)! Wearing blue robes, they seek the approval of the Muslim rulers. Accepting bread from the Muslim rulers (whom they call Malesh), they worship the Puraanas (in other words they show as they live in accordance with the Puraanaas). They eat the (Halal) meat of the goats (killed after the Muslim prayers are read over them), but they do not allow anyone else to enter their kitchen areas. They draw lines around them, besmear the ground with cow-dung. (These) false (people) who come and sit (in the kitchen) are false themselves! They cry out, "Do not touch our food, or it will be polluted!" But with their polluted bodies, they commit evil deeds. With filthy minds, they try to cleanse their mouths. Says Nanak, meditate on Truth. If you are pure (within), then you will obtain Truth ||2|| (sggs 471-472).
Preceding are just a few examples of the man's stubborn
mindedness as seen by the Gurbani. We are repeatedly asked by the Gurbani to
destroy our mental stubbornness, once for ever. The abandonment of mental stubbornness
will help us to retrace our steps back to our Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...).
Therefore, we are asked by the Gurbani to renounce all our Mann-Hatha.
But it's not so easy! First of all, from the very childhood we are systematically
led into believing in stubborn-mindedness and related rituals. Second,our life is full of quarrel, cheating,
deceit, cynicism, hypocrisy, duplicity, misinformation, etc. Further, we are short-lived;
not very intelligent and fortunate; and perpetually disturbed and agitated by
anxieties. Third, our mind is ever flickering, turbulent, swift, restless, obstinate,
tossing around and so strong that it often overcomes even one's own intelligence.
Thus, the present age is a bitter struggle for a life of short duration!
as a blind cannot see a garden of beautiful flowers, just as a drunkard cannot
be instructed in the subtleties of spirituality, just as hair cannot grow on a
tortoise's shell, just as a dead cannot get up and run, just as a lotus cannot
grow on a rock, and just as there is no oil in the sand grains, similarly, the
stubborn mindedness is not conducive for Bhagti or Naam-Simran or Shabad-Vichaar .
Accordingly, the Gurbani challenges us to fight against our Mann-Hatha.
is stubborn and persistent; so is Mayadhaaree (stubborn being). Prisoned
in the fortress of ignorance of the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...), Maya has shut its stubborn doors on
us; consequently, we cannot see the Light. Our stubborn mindedness does
not allow us plant the seeds of Intuitive Wisdom. Caught in the love of duality (Maya), thus,
we have forgotten the treasure of the Naam-consciousness (Aatam Giaan...). Instead, we attach
our material consciousness to the foul-smelling pile of "filth", which
is transitory, like the fading color of the safflower. In Mann-Hatha, we
wander in ten direction; continually spinning around, like the potter’s wheel.
In sorrow, we eat, and in sorrow, we gather things and try to enjoy them, but
we only increase our stores of sorrow.
- ਮਨ ਸਿਉ ਜੂਝਿ ਮਰੈ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਪਾਏ ਮਨਸਾ ਮਨਹਿ ਸਮਾਏ ॥: Mann siou joojhi marai prabh paae mansaa manahi
sammae: One who dies (from ego, ਹਉਮੈ ਵਲੋਂ ) fighting against his own mind, and directs his mind's wanderings (ਫੁਰਨੇ) permeate in the mind finds God (sggs 353).
This brings us to the following
question: How can the stubborn mindedness (contaminated intellect or false ego)
be destroyed? As reveals throughout the Gurbani, the stubborn mindedness can be
eradicated by attaining Aatam Giaan through the Shabad-Vichaar.
- ਹੋਇ ਢੀਠ ਮੀਠੀ ਮਨਹਿ ਲਾਗੈ ਨਾਮੁ ਲੈਣ ਨ ਆਵਏ ॥: Hoi dheeth
meethee manahi laagai naam lain n aavae: Maya is stubborn and persistent (ਭਾਵ, ਮੁੜ ਮੁੜ ਆਪਣੇ ਹਾਵ-ਭਾਵ ਵਿਖਾ ਕੇ);
(because of he being so stubborn and persistent, finaly) she seems sweet to the the mind, and then (under her spell - ਇਸ ਮੋਹਣੀ ਮਾਇਆ ਦੇ ਅਸਰ ਹੇਠ) he cannot chant the Naam (sggs 847).
- ਮਨਹਠਿ ਜੋ ਕਮਾਵੈ ਤਿਲੁ ਨ ਲੇਖੈ ਪਾਵੈ ਬਗੁਲ ਜਿਉ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਲਾਵੈ ਮਾਇਆ ਰੇ ਧਾਰੀ ॥: Mannhathi jo kamaavai
til na lekhai paavai bagul jiou dhiaan laavai Maya re dhaaree: One who acts
(performs religious acts, etc.) through stubbornness is of no account at all (his actions are of no avail); (because) like a crane, he pretends to meditate,
but he is still stuck in Maya (i.e., he is Mayadhaaree - ਮਾਇਆ ਧਾਰੀ) (sggs 687)
When one’s mind abides in the Shabad-Surti, he radiates
Aatam Giaan, and one becomes a Gurmukh (Spiritual Being)
— one who understands his Mool. He then merges in Sahaj Avasthaa,
and the stubborn foolishness departs.
- ਮਨੁ ਕਠੋਰੁ ਸਬਦਿ ਭੇਦਿ ਤੂੰ ਸਾਂਤਿ ਵਸੈ ਮਨਿ ਆਇ : Mann kathor
Sabad bhed toon shant vasai mann aai: Pierce your hard mind (that has become hard on account of stubbornness - ਭਾਵ, ਮਨ ਨੂੰ ਜੋ ਹਠ ਦੇ ਕਾਰਨ ਕਠੋਰ ਹੈ) with
the the Shabad; so that Peace and Tranquility come to abide in your mind (sggs
- ਗੁਰ ਕੈ ਸਬਦਿ ਮਰੈ ਮਨੁ ਮਾਰੇ ਹਉਮੈ ਜਾਇ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥੫॥: Gur kai sabadi marai manu maare haumai jaai samiaa ||5||: Who dies in the the Gur-Shabad (Naam-Giaan...), conquers his mind; his egotism departs; and he merges (in his Mool-Source...) ||5|| (sggs 1068).
- ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਿਤੈ ਉਪਾਇ ਨ ਛੂਟੀਐ ਸਿਮ੍ਰਿਤਿ ਸਾਸਤ੍ਰ ਸੋਧਹੁ ਜਾਇ ॥ ਮਿਲਿ ਸੰਗਤਿ ਸਾਧੂ ਉਬਰੇ ਗੁਰ ਕਾ ਸਬਦੁ ਕਮਾਇ ॥੬॥: Mannhathi kitai upaai n shutteeai
simriti saastra sodhahu jaai. Mil sangat saadhoo ubre Gur kaa Sabad kamaai:
Acting in stubborn-mindedness, no one is saved (from the poison of Haumai or ego...); go and study Simritees and
the Shaastras. Associating with the Saadhoo (the mended mind linked to its Mool within...), and practicing the Gur-Shabad (Shabad-Vichaar), (man) is saved (from Haumai or ego...). ||6|| (sggs 65).
- ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦੀ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਈਐ ਹਰਿ ਪਾਰਿ ਲਘਾਇ ॥ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਕਿਨੈ ਨ ਪਾਇਓ ਪੁਛਹੁ ਵੇਦਾ ਜਾਇ ॥: Gursabadee
hari paayeeai hari paar langhaai. Mannhathi kinai n paaio pushahu vedaa jaai:
God that carries us acrosss (the world-ocean) is attained through the Gur-Shabad. Through stubborn-mindedness,
none have found Him; go and consult the Vedas on this (i.e., the ancient scriptures also confirm this) (sggs 86).
- ਮਃ ੨ ॥ ਮਨਹਠਿ ਤਰਫ ਨ ਜਿਪਈ ਜੇ ਬਹੁਤਾ ਘਾਲੇ ॥ ਤਰਫ ਜਿਣੈ ਸਤ ਭਾਉ ਦੇ ਜਨ ਨਾਨਕ ਸਬਦੁ ਵੀਚਾਰੇ ॥੪॥: M: 2|| Mann
hathi taraf n jipaee je bahutaa ghaale. Taraph jinai sat bhaaou de jan Nanak
Sabadu veechaare ||4||: M: 2. Stubborn-mindedness will not win God to (your) side, no
matter how much it is tried. O servant Nanak, God is won over to (your) side, by offering Him your
true motives (love, devotion, etc.), and contemplating the Shabad (i.e., ਸੁਭ ਭਾਵਨਾ ਤੇ ਗੁਰ-ਸਬਦ ਨੂੰ ਵੀਚਾਰਣਾਂ) ||4|| (sggs 787).
1 & 2: This is not a criticism of
anything or any entity, but instead, a specific point intended to foster a true spiritual
understanding of the Shabad [Return to footnote 1] , [Return
to footnote 2].
Tuesday, September 25, 2012 2:39 PM