Naam Padaarath and Giaan Padaarath

ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੋ ਦੇਇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇ ॥:
Gur Giaan padaarath naamu hai hari naamo dei drirhaai (sggs 759).
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Nam (ਨਾਮ) is pronounced as Naam. Literally, Naam means name...

Padarath (ਪਦਾਰਥ) is pronounced as Padaarath. Literally, Padaarath means stuff, material, matter, a thing...

Gian (ਗਿਆਨ) is pronounced as Giaan (also spelt Giyan, etc.). Literally, Giaan means knowledge...

First, what is Naam?

In essence, Naam is essentially Giaan (Aatam-Giaan, Spiritual Wisdom, Divine Knowledge, Hukam, Understanding of the Spiritual or Divine or Gurmukh Lifestyle, ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਸੂਝ-ਬੂਝ, ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਨਾਲ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ...)

  • ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੋ ਦੇਇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇ ॥: Gur Giaan padaarath naamu hai hari naamo dei drirhaai: The Gur-Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom...) is the Naam Padaarath. (Hence, the Guru) makes the Hari Naam firm (resolved, stable, strong, properly understood, ਪੱਕਾ, ਦ੍ਰਿੜ, etc., in the mind of the sincere seeker of Truth - ਜਗ੍ਯਾਸੂ...). (sggs 759).
  • ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨਾਮਿ ਮੁਕਤਿ ਹੋਈ ॥: Gurmukhi giaanu naami mukati hoee: By becoming the Gurmukh (Spiritual Being, follower of the Truth and truthful living..., one) acquires Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom...), and through the Naam (the Gurmukh) gets liberated (Muki-ਮੁਕਤੀ). (sggs 117).
  • ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਰੰਜਨ ਪਾਇਆ ਗਿਆਨ ਕਾਇਆ ਰਸ ਭੋਗੰ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Amrit naamu niranjan paaiaa giaan kaaiaa ras bhogam ||1||Rahaaou||: One who has obtained the Amrit Naam, his body enjoys the Pleasure (ਆਤਮਕ ਆਨੰਦ) of Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਨਾਲ ਡੂੰਘੀ ਜਾਣ-ਪਛਾਣ...). ||1||Pause|| (sggs 360).
  • ਗਿਆਨਿ ਰਤਨਿ ਘਟਿ ਚਾਨਣੁ ਹੋਆ ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮ ਪਿਆਰੋ ॥: Giaani ratani ghati chaananu hoaa Nanak naam piaaro: O Nanak! (In whom) The Light of the Jewel of the Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Gur-Giaan...) shines within the Heart, (he) loves the Naam. (sggs 584).
  • ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਤ੍ਰਿਭਵਣ ਸੋਝੀ ਹੋਇ ॥: Obtaining the wealth of the Giaan Padaarath (Spiritual Wisdom...), understanding of the three worlds is acquired. (sggs 60).

Without the one, the other is of no avail.

  • ਨਾਮ ਬਿਨਾ ਕਿਆ ਗਿਆਨ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥: Naam binaa kiaa giaan dhiaanu (sggs 905).

But, where is this Naam located? According to the Gurbani, the Naam is located within. For (as indicated throughout the Gurbani), the Shabad, Mool (ਮੂਲ) Gur, Satgur..., "everything" is within.

And how does one attain (realize...) it? Again, according to the Gurbani, it is attained through the constant Shabad-Vichaar.

Also, where is the Giaan or Divine Knowledge located? According to the Gurbani, like the Naam, the Giaan too is present within.

The Gurbani confirms these three forgoing statements as follows:

  • ਇਹੁ ਮਨੁ ਦੇਹੀ ਸੋਧਿ ਤੂੰ ਗੁਰ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰਿ ॥ ਨਾਨਕ ਇਸੁ ਦੇਹੀ ਵਿਚਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨੁ ਹੈ ਪਾਈਐ ਗੁਰ ਕੈ ਹੇਤਿ ਅਪਾਰਿ ॥੮॥੧੦॥੩੨॥: Ihu manu dehee sodhi toon gur sabadi veechaari. Nanak isu dehee vichi naami nidhaani hai paaeeai gur kai heti apaari ||8||10||32||: Search this mind and body, by the Gur-Shabad-Vichaar (by reflecting on the Gur-Shabad...). O Nanak! Within this body is the Treasure of the Naam; it is attained through the unbounded love for the Gur (Gur-Giaan...) ||8||10||32|| (sggs 427).
  • ਅੰਤਰਿ ਤੀਰਥੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਦੀਆ ਬੁਝਾਇ ॥ ਮੈਲੁ ਗਈ ਮਨੁ ਨਿਰਮਲੁ ਹੋਆ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਸਰਿ ਤੀਰਥਿ ਨਾਇ ॥: Antari teerathu giaanu hai satigur deeaa bujhaai. Mail gaee manu nirmalu hoaa amrit sari teerathi naai: Deep within is the sacred shrine (Teerath) of Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom...), which the Satgur has revealed. Bathing in (this sacred shrine), the pool of Amrit, filth of the mind (filth of passions, Bikaars...) is removed and it becomes pure. (sggs 587).
  • ਸਭ ਕਿਛੁ ਘਰ ਮਹਿ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਨਾਹੀ ॥ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਟੋਲੈ ਸੋ ਭਰਮਿ ਭੁਲਾਹੀ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਪਰਸਾਦੀ ਜਿਨੀ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਪਾਇਆ ਸੋ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਬਾਹਰਿ ਸੁਹੇਲਾ ਜੀਉ ॥੧॥: Sabh kishu ghar mahi baahari naahee. Baahari tolai so bharami bhulaahee. Gur Parasaadee jinee antari paaiaa so antari baahari suhelaa jeeou ||1||: Everything is within the Home (of the self, Heart, Antahakaran, ਅੰਤਹ ਕਰਨ ਰੂਪੀ ਘਰ ਅੰਦਰ, ਹਿਰਦੇ ਘਰ ਵਿਚ...); there is nothing outside of It. Who searches outside is deluded by doubts. By "Gur Parasaadee" (i.e., by the Gur-Grace: Grace of the Gur-Giaan...), who has Realized (Truth...) within is Happy inwardly and outwardly (i.e., totally Happy, Easy, Comfortable, Peaceful, Blissful, Joyful, ਸੌਖਾ, ਸੁਖੀ, ਆਤਮਕ ਸੁਖ...) ||1|| (sggs 102).

Thus, in essence, the Naam Padaarath and the Giaan padaarath are essentially one and the same, and its all within. But, as indicated above, all of this is realized through the "Gur Parasaadee" (i.e., Gur-Grace: Grace of the Gur-Giaan...).

  • ਗੁਰ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੋ ਦੇਇ ਦ੍ਰਿੜਾਇ ॥: Gur Giaan padaarath naamu hai hari naamo dei drirhaai: The Gur-Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, ਆਤਮਕ ਜੀਵਨ ਦੀ ਸੂਝ...) is the Naam Padaarath. (Hence, the Guru) makes the Hari Naam firm (resolved, stable, strong, properly understood, ਪੱਕਾ, ਦ੍ਰਿੜ, etc., in the mind of the sincere seeker of Truth - ਜਗ੍ਯਾਸੂ...). (sggs 759).
  • ਐਸਾ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਦਾਰਥੁ ਨਾਮੁ ॥ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਪਾਵਸਿ ਰਸਿ ਰਸਿ ਮਾਨੁ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Aisaa giaanu padaarath naamu. Gurmukhi paavasi rasi rasi maanu ||1||Rahaaou||: Such is the Padaarath of Giaan and Naam. By becoming the Gurmukh, one obtains it and enjoys its subtle Essence and attains dignity. ||1|| Pause|| (sggs 831).

As indicated by the Gurbani, the Naam Padaarath is attained within through the Shabad-Vichaar.

  • ਇਸੁ ਕਾਇਆ ਅੰਦਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਉ ਨਿਧਿ ਪਾਈਐ ਗੁਰ ਕੈ ਸਬਦਿ ਵੀਚਾਰਾ ॥੪॥: isu kaaiaa andari naamu naou nidhi paaeeai gur kai sabadi veechaaraa (sggs 754).

Now, what is Shabad-Vichaar? It is essentially churning the Gurbani (Gurmat -the Guru's Teaching...). By churning the cream or curd, butter is obtained. Similarly, by churning the Gurbani (through the Shabad-Vichaar...) the butter of Giaan (Gur-Giaan, Aatam-Giaan, Spiritual Wisdom...) is obtained. More we churn the Gurbani (Shabad-Vichaar...), more the butter of Giaan is obtained.

  • ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਦਧਿ ਮਥੀਐ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨਾ ॥: Gurmatee dadhi matheeai amritu paaeeai naamu nidhaanaa: Following the Guru's Teachings, churn the cream (Gurbani, Gur-Shabad...), and the Treasure of the Amrit Naam is obtained (sggs 1009).
  • ਜਨੁ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਬੋਲੇ ਗੁਣ ਬਾਣੀ ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮਿ ਸਮਾਇਆ ॥੪॥੫॥: Jan Nanaku bole gun baanee gurbaee hari naami samaaiaa ||4||5||: O Daas Nanak! (The one who) utters the Baanee of the Divine Virtues (ਪਰਮਾਤਮਾ ਦੀ ਸਿਫਤ-ਸਾਲਾਹ ਵਾਲੀ ਬਾਣੀ...); through the Gurbani, (he) is absorbed in the Lord's Naam. (sggs 494).

The Gurbani also tells us how to do this churning. That is, the churning has to be done in Sahaj - Natural State of Being, Intuitive Ease, ਸਭਾਵਕ, ਅਡੋਲ ਅਵਸਤਾ...

In other words, ritual or counted readings/listening of the Gurbani without understanding (such as mechanical Nitnems, machine-gun Paaths, Akhand Paaths, and so on) are of no avail. All that Karamkaand is like churning water!! The gurbani alerts us:

  • ਜਲੁ ਬਿਲੋਵੈ ਜਲੁ ਮਥੈ ਤਤੁ ਲੋੜੈ ਅੰਧੁ ਅਗਿਆਨਾ ॥ ਗੁਰਮਤੀ ਦਧਿ ਮਥੀਐ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪਾਈਐ ਨਾਮੁ ਨਿਧਾਨਾ ॥ ਮਨਮੁਖ ਤਤੁ ਨ ਜਾਣਨੀ ਪਸੂ ਮਾਹਿ ਸਮਾਨਾ ॥੩॥ : Jalu bilovai jalu mathai tatu lorrai andhu agiaanaa ...: The mortal who stirs the water, and (always) churns the water in hope to obtain butter, is blind (mentally blind), and ignorant. (If we) churn the cream (butter is obtained, similarly) following the Gurmat (i.e., following the Gurbani's Teaching, the Butter of), the Treasure of the Amrit-Naam is obtained. The Manmukhs do not understand (this) Essence (Truth...), they remain centered in animal-consciousness (ਪਸੂ-ਬ੍ਰਿਤੀ). ||3||(sggs 1009).
  • ਭਰਮੇ ਭੂਲਾ ਸਾਕਤੁ ਫਿਰਤਾ ॥ ਨੀਰੁ ਬਿਰੋਲੈ ਖਪਿ ਖਪਿ ਮਰਤਾ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥: Bharme bhoolaa saakatu phirataa. Neeru birolai khapi khapi marataa ||1||Rahaaou||: The Saakat (one fallen from the Spiritual Life...), deluded by doubt, wanders around (ਕੁਰਾਹੇ). He churns water, and expending (his life so uselessly in rituals, etc.), he dies (churning water-ਆਤਮਕ ਮੌਤੇ). ||1||Pause||. (sggs 739).

Hence, the Gurbani defines the true Giaanee (the person of Spiritual Wisdom or Giaan: ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ) as the one who Naturally (Sahaj) remains attuned to the Shabad, Naam, Gurbani, Hukam....

  • ਸੋ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਜਿਨਿ ਸਬਦਿ ਲਿਵ ਲਾਈ ॥: So Giani jini shabdi liv laaee: He alone is a Giaanee (ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ), who has focused his consciousness on the Shabad (sggs 831).
  • ਗਿਆਨੀਆ ਕਾ ਧਨੁ ਨਾਮੁ ਹੈ ਸਹਜਿ ਕਰਹਿ ਵਾਪਾਰੁ ॥: Giaaneeaa kaa dhanu naamu hai sahaji karahi vaapaaru: The Wealth of the persons of Giaan (ਗਿਆਨ-ਵਾਨ) is the Naam; with Sahaj, they trade (in this Naam Wealth). (sggs 68).
  • ਸਹਜੇ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਪਰਗਟੁ ਹੋਇ ॥੧॥: Sahaje naamu dhiaaeeai giaanu pargatu hoi||1||: Meditating on the Naam with Sahaj, Giaan is manifested. ||1||. (sggs 429).

Then why the majority of us don't practice what the Gurbani tells us do? Because the majority of us in this world are busy churning water (preoccupation with other nonsense activities, rituals, Karamkaand -"ਅਵਰੇ ਕਰਮ", "ਪਸੂ ਮਾਹਿ ਸਮਾਨਾ"... )!

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਨਾਮੁ ਨ ਚੇਤਨੀ ਅਗਿਆਨੀ ਅੰਧੁਲੇ ਅਵਰੇ ਕਰਮ ਕਮਾਹਿ ॥: Nanak Naam na chetnee agiyaanee andhule avare karam kaamaahi: O Nanak, the blind, ignorant fools do not remember the Naam; they involve themselves in other activities (sggs 648).

In nutshell, the Divine Knowledge or Giaan of the Gurbani (Gur-Shabad, Gurmat...) is the Naam-Padaarath (i.e., ਗੁਰਮਤ ਦਾ ਗਿਆਨ ਹੀ ਨਾਮ ਪਦਾਰਥ ਹੈ).

The Gurbani is akin to a Thaal (ਥਾਲ - plate). The Giaan Padaarath (ਗਿਆਨ) ਪਦਾਰਥ) is put on (infused, injected, penetrated...) this Thaal (plate) - ਥਾਲ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ "ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥ" ਪਾਇਆ ਹੈ, that is, ਗੁਰਬਾਣੀ ਵਿਚ ਇਹ "ਗਿਆਨ ਪਦਾਰਥ" ਇਕ ਵਸਤੂ ਪਾਈ ਹੈ.

To put it otherwise, the Shabad-Vichaar is the Naam Amrit.

  • ਥਾਲ ਵਿਚਿ ਤਿੰਨਿ ਵਸਤੂ ਪਈਓ ਸਤੁ ਸੰਤੋਖੁ ਵੀਚਾਰੋ ॥ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਨਾਮੁ ਠਾਕੁਰ ਕਾ ਪਇਓ ਜਿਸ ਕਾ ਸਭਸੁ ਅਧਾਰੋ ॥ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਖਾਵੈ ਜੇ ਕੋ ਭੁੰਚੈ ਤਿਸ ਕਾ ਹੋਇ ਉਧਾਰੋ ॥ ਏਹ ਵਸਤੁ ਤਜੀ ਨਹ ਜਾਈ ਨਿਤ ਨਿਤ ਰਖੁ ਉਰਿ ਧਾਰੋ ॥ ਤਮ ਸੰਸਾਰੁ ਚਰਨ ਲਗਿ ਤਰੀਐ ਸਭੁ ਨਾਨਕ ਬ੍ਰਹਮ ਪਸਾਰੋ ॥੧॥: Thaal vich tinni vastoo peeo satu santokh vechaaro... (sggs 1429).

What does constitute Dharma and a Dhaarmic person (religious person...)? Gurbani declares that a person cannot be a religious unless he possesses the Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Aatam-Giaan...). However, many of us try to become Dhaarmic before realizing Giaan (Divine Knowledge, Spiritual Wisdom, Aatam-Giaan...)!

  • ਕਬੀਰਾ ਜਹਾ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਤਹ ਧਰਮੁ ਹੈ ਜਹਾ ਝੂਠੁ ਤਹ ਪਾਪੁ ॥: Kabeeraa jahaa giaanu tah dharamu hai jahaa jhoothu tah paapu: O Kabeer! (Within a person, if) there is Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Divine Knowledge, Aatm-Giaan…) there is Dharma; (if within him) there is falsehood, there is sin (sggs 1372).
  • ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਗਿਆਨੁ ਨ ਧਿਆਨੁ ਹੈ ਨਾ ਤਿਸੁ ਧਰਮੁ ਧਿਆਨੁ ॥: Naa tisu giaanu n dhiaanu hai naa tisu dharmu dhiaanu: That person (who performs all sorts of rituals and has no Divine Virtues) has neither Giaan (Spiritual Wisdom, Divine Knowledge, Aatm-Giaan…) nor Dhiaan (meditation); neither Dharma nor Dhiaan (meditation). (sggs 935).

Thus, the Gurbani makes it clear that without the real Giaan there can be no real Dharma (i.e., living a life of true Dharma - ਧਰਮ…) or Dhiaan. Real Giaan is - while living in the midst of this world of plurality - seeing the One Truth transparent in the plurality (ਸੋਈ ਗਿਆਨੀ ਜਿ ਸਿਮਰੈ ਏਕ ॥ Soee giaaneee ji simarai ek, sggs 1150).

So, in order to realize the Giaan Padaarath and the Naam Padaarath, the Gurbani urges us to become the Gurmukh (Spiritual being, the follower of the Truth and truthful living-ਸਚ...).

  • ਨਾਨਕ ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਮਥਿ ਤਤੁ ਕਢੀਏ ॥੪॥੫॥੫੭॥: Nanak Gurmukhi mathi tatu kadheee ||4||5||57||: O Nanak, by becoming the Gurmukh, one who churns this ocean (of the body and the Divine Virtue that are present within this body), discovers Essence (ਨਿਚੋੜ - ਉੱਚਾ ਸੁੱਚਾ ਜੀਵਨ) ||4||5||57|| (sggs 367).
  • ਸਨਕ ਸਨੰਦ ਅੰਤੁ ਨਹੀ ਪਾਇਆ ॥ ਬੇਦ ਪੜੇ ਪੜਿ ਬ੍ਰਹਮੇ ਜਨਮੁ ਗਵਾਇਆ ॥੧॥ ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਬਿਲੋਵਨਾ ਬਿਲੋਵਹੁ ਮੇਰੇ ਭਾਈ ॥ ਸਹਜਿ ਬਿਲੋਵਹੁ ਜੈਸੇ ਤਤੁ ਨ ਜਾਈ ॥੧॥ ਰਹਾਉ ॥ ਤਨੁ ਕਰਿ ਮਟੁਕੀ ਮਨ ਮਾਹਿ ਬਿਲੋਈ ॥ ਇਸੁ ਮਟੁਕੀ ਮਹਿ ਸਬਦੁ ਸੰਜੋਈ ॥੨॥ ਹਰਿ ਕਾ ਬਿਲੋਵਨਾ ਮਨ ਕਾ ਬੀਚਾਰਾ ॥ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ਪਾਵੈ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤ ਧਾਰਾ ॥੩॥: Sanak Sanand antu nahee paaiaa. Bed parre parri brahame janamu gavaaiaa ||1|| Hri ka bilovanaa bilovahu mere bhaaee. Sahaji bilovahu jaise tatu n jaaee. ||1||Rahaaou|| Tanu kari matakee man maahi biloee. Isu matakee mahi Sabadu sanjoee. ||2|| Hari kaa bilovanaa man kaa beechaaraa. Gur prasaadi paavai amrit dhaaraa ||3||: By reading and reading (i.e., reading the Vedas over and over again), Sanak and Sanand (the sons of Brahma) wasted their lives away (but could not find Hari...). ||1|| O Brother! Churn the churn of the Hari (Shabad-Vichaar...). Churn it steadily (i.e., in Sahaj Avasthaa - Natural State of Being, transcending Maya...), so that the Essence (ਤੱਤ - ਗਿਆਨ) may not be lost. ||1||Pause|| Make body the churning jar (ਚਾਟੀ), and churn therein with the (stick - ਮਧਾਣੀ - of the) mind. In this (body-) jar, gather (the milk of) the Shabad. ||2|| The churning of the Hari is to Reflect (Shabad-Vichaar) within the mind. (One who does this churning) by the Gur-Prasaadi (Grace of the Gur-Giaan, he), obtains (within) the stream of Amrit. ||3|| (sggs 478).

– T. Singh
www.gurbani.org


Updated on Thursday, November 13, 2014 12:04 PM (PST)