VITAL BREATHThe value of the human lasts only as long as the breath in the body.
When the breath is taken away, the body crumbles into dust. (sggs 1256).
Also known as life force, vital force, primal energy, life breath or Praan (also spelt Prana ), if there is not this vital breath, there will be no mind ("I" consciousness, intellect or false ego-sense). If there is no mind, there will be know knowledge of the world or "I-ness". In fact one's mind dances to the rhythm of this Praan — it is the language of the vital breath. This Praan and the ego-sense (mind or intellect) always appear simultaneously and thus exist together. To say it otherwise, the vital force and the "I" consciousness are not really two; as a concept they are treated as such but they are one in essence — always go hand in hand, like the two sides of the same coin. Without this vital force the body has no value; for the body is under its power. When the subtle thread of this vital breath is snapped, the body crumbles into dust. The Gurbani (Sri Guru Granth Sahib, SGGS) says:
- ਪਵਣੈ ਕੈ ਵਸਿ ਦੇਹੁਰੀ ਮਸਤਕਿ ਸਚੁ ਨੀਸਾਣੁ ॥: Pavnai kai vas dayhuree mastak sach neesaan: (According to) the True Sign (Hukam on the) forehead, the body is under the power of the breath (sggs 63).
- ਕੋ ਰਹੈ ਨ ਭਰੀਐ ਪਾਈਐ ॥੫॥: Ko rahai na bhareeai paaeeai ||5||: No one remains here when the count of the breaths is full ||5|| (sggs 465).
- ਮਾਣਸ ਕਾ ਫਲੁ ਘਟ ਮਹਿ ਸਾਸੁ ॥ ਸਾਸਿ ਗਇਐ ਕਾਇਆ ਢਲਿ ਪਾਇ ॥: Maanas kaa
fal ghat meh saas. Saas
gaiai kaaiaa dhal paai: The value of the human lasts only as long as the breath
in the body.
When the breath is taken away, the body crumbles into
dust (sggs 1256).
- ਫਰੀਦਾ ਭੰਨੀ ਘੜੀ ਸਵੰਨਵੀ ਟੁਟੀ ਨਾਗਰ ਲਜੁ ॥: Fareedaa bhannee gharhee savannvee tutee naagar laj: Fareed, the beautiful body breaks apart (as the) beutiful (i.e., subtle) thread of the breath snaps (sggs 1381).
- ਨਿਕਸਿਆ ਫੂਕ ਤ ਹੋਇ ਗਇਓ ਸੁਆਹਾ ॥: Niksiaa
fook ta hoi gaio suaahaa: But when the breath leaves him, he turns to ashes
- ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਗਏ ਸਾਗਰੁ ਮਿਲੈ ਫੁਨਿ ਕਾਮਿ ਨ ਆਵੈ ॥: Paraan gaye saagar milai fun kaam na aavai: When its breath of life is gone, even an ocean is of no use to it (sggs 858).
- ਰੇ ਮਨ ਲੇਖੈ ਚਾਲਹਿ ਲੇਖੈ ਬੈਸਹਿ ਲੇਖੈ ਲੈਦਾ ਸਾਹਾ ॥: Ray man laykhai chaaleh laykhai baiseh laykhai laidaa saahaa: O mind, your steps are numbered, your moments spent sitting are numbered, and the breaths you are to take are numbered (sggs 402).
Therefore, the vital force is our real and sure bet to know the Mool within (Source, Origin, Jot...). It is our true capital, naturally available to us. When the vital breath is gone the person is said to be dead. It is this active principle that does everything: waking, dreaming, sleeping, thinking, speaking, digesting food, and so on. So long the vital force is there, the spirituality has value, and the world of names and forms has value. In its absence, there is nothingness: the aggregate of body and senses become powerless, defunct and destroyed. That is why the scriptures and the realized men urge us to love and worship this life force and give not only importance but pay attention to it. By keeping union and companionship with it, we are urged by the Gurbani to become one with it at once. In turn we will be able to understand the Mool. But if one wastes his vital force in vain, the Gurbani declares that person to be a "thoughtless fool".
- ਅਚੇਤ ਮੂੜਾ ਨ ਜਾਣੰਤ ਘਟੰਤ ਸਾਸਾ ਨਿਤ ਪ੍ਰਤੇ ॥: Achet moorhaa na jaanant ghatant saasaa nit partay: The thoughtless fool does not know that each day, his breaths are being used up (sggs 1359).
- ਮਨ ਮੇਰੇ ਸਾਚਾ ਸੇਵਿ ਜਿਚਰੁ ਸਾਸੁ ॥: Mann mayray saachaa sayv jichar saas: O my mind, serve the Truth, as long as you have the breath of life (sggs 49).
- ਹਰਿ ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਸੁਖਦਾਤੇ ॥: Har paraan parabhoo sukh-daatay: God is Praanaa; He is the Giver of Peace (sggs 529).
This vital force is One. It is Universal. It equally pervades all beings. It is infinite and homogenous thread which runs in and through all beings like pearls strung on a thread. There is no "two-ness" in it. We all are this Universal vital force, which underlies all cosmic manifestation, individual and collective. In its unconditioned state, it is the essence of the Mool; nameless, spaceless, timeless and attributeless. There is no life without it. Also, it never leaves us. Therefore, there is no need to find it. It is always present within the body, "here" and "now".
- ਏਕੋ ਪਵਣੁ ਮਾਟੀ ਸਭ ਏਕਾ ਸਭ ਏਕਾ ਜੋਤਿ ਸਬਾਈਆ ॥ ਸਭ ਇਕਾ ਜੋਤਿ ਵਰਤੈ ਭਿਨਿ ਭਿਨਿ ਨ ਰਲਈ ਕਿਸੈ ਦੀ ਰਲਾਈਆ ॥: Eko pavan maatee sabh aykaa sabh aykaa joti sabaaeeiaa. Sabh ikaa jot vartai bhin bhin na ralee kisai dee ralaaeeaa: There is only one breath; all are made of the same clay; the light within all is the same. The One Light pervades all the many and various beings. This Light intermingles with them, but it is not diluted or obscured (sggs 96).
- ਘਟਿ ਘਟਿ ਪਉਣੁ ਵਹੈ ਇਕ ਰੰਗੀ ਮਿਲਿ ਪਵਣੈ ਸਭ ਵਜਾਇਦਾ ॥: Ghat ghat paoun vahai ik rangee mil pavnai sabh vajaaidaa:
The breath flows equally through the hearts of each and every being. Receiving
the breath, all the instruments sing (sggs 1061).
- ਪਵਨਿ ਪਰੋਇਓ ਸਗਲ ਅਕਾਰਾ ਪਾਵਕ ਕਾਸਟ ਸੰਗੇ ॥:
Pavan paroio sagal akaaraa paavak kaasat sange: He has strung His Breath
throughout the creation; He locked the fire in the wood (sggs 1235).
- ਜਿਸ ਦਾ ਜੀਉ ਪਰਾਣੁ ਹੈ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਜੋਤਿ ਅਪਾਰਾ ॥: Jis daa jeeou paraan hai antar joti apaaraa: The Divine Light of the Infinit, the Substratum of the soul and the breath of life, dwells deep within the inner being (sggs 140).
- ਇਕਸ ਕਾ ਮਨਿ ਆਸਰਾ ਇਕੋ ਪ੍ਰਾਣ ਅਧਾਰੁ ॥: Ikas kaa man aasraa iko paraan adhaar: The One is the Support of the mind; the One is the Support of the breath of life (45).
Out of ignorance arises the "I-ness" or ego-consciousness which develops everything, the entire manifestation. On the Absolute this ego-sense appears spontaneously and out of that comes the illusion which occupies the Truth. This feeling of "I-ness" or "existence" depends on the body. When the body drops, it also sets. This illusory consciousness arises upon one itself, unwittingly or spontaneously. And that which arises spontaneously will disappear in the same manner. This is the reason the ego-sense is said to be false or temporary.
Maya's music and spinning gets in action with the start of the body. Made of the soup of five elements, the body (biological apparatus) becomes enlivened by the vital breath. Right after the birth of the body, during the infancy we do not know of our bodily existence because in the early days the Substratum, the Pure Consciousness, is still Intact or Undivided. However, few months after the birth of the body there is the "movement" — that is, the false ego sense or the knowledge "I, me, mine" — on the state of the Absolute, then we begin to feel that we are alive, we are awake, or we exist. At this stage thoughts come, the mind starts working, and words of names and forms start coming through the mind. Then imaginations and concepts form. This body-mind-intellect identity only gets stronger with time, and becomes the source of one's troubles and bondage.
Thus birth of the physical body is our base point. For the false ego or conditioned consciousness to appear, it needs a body. Therefore body is the food or vehicle for it. All activities (Karma) belong the body and ego-sense. Not the Mool. This ego-sense or knowledge "I, me, mine" works through the three Gunaas or qualities of material nature (Maya). Without the food the body will not exist, and without the body the ego-sense will not exist. Just as in the oil lamp when there is oil there is flame. Body is the lamp and the false ego-sense is the flame. Once the body-identity has arisen, we then long for that to which our breath is attached. In body-identity, thus, we waste the vital force in chasing mirage-like desires, passions and the worldliness. The Gurbani asks us to wake up from this seeming unending dream. If we do not awake to this illusion, we remain a bundle of concepts, memories, habits, mistakes and imaginations.
- ਪ੍ਰਾਨ ਮਾਨ ਦਾਨ ਮਗ ਜੋਹਨ ਹੀਤੁ ਚੀਤੁ ਦੇ ਲੇ ਲੇ ਪਾਰੀ ॥: Paraan maan daan mag johan heet cheet day lay lay paaree: I have used up my breath of life, sold my self-respect, begged for charity, committed highway robbery, and dedicated my consciousness to the love and pursuit of acquiring wealth (sggs 1388).
- ਏਕਹਿ ਪ੍ਰਾਣ ਪਿੰਡ ਤੇ ਪਿਆਰੀ ॥: Ekahi paraan pind tay piaaree: Some love this wealth even more than their body and breath of life (sggs 1004).
- ਜਿਸੁ ਸੰਗਿ ਲਾਗੇ ਪ੍ਰਾਣ ਤਿਸੈ ਕਉ ਆਹੀਐ ॥: Jis sang laagay paraan tisai kaou aaheeai: It longs for that, to which its breath of life is attached (sggs 1362).
If we are the Pure Consciousness (Mool...), then how does this Pure Consciousness become crooked or distorted as false ego-sense or "I-ness"? The clay is not crooked or distorted. But when we make a pot out of it — that is, when the clay is modified and given a form and name — it becomes modified, crooked or distorted. Similarly, by giving ourselves a name (ego personified personality or individuality), our vision has become crooked. As we can see, clay as such is neither crooked, tainted or ignorant. But when this clay is transformed into a pot, crookedness, modification, conditioning or taintedness started. Here clay is the Mool or "Joti-Svaroopa" without name, form and any modification. So long we remain "Joti-Svaroopa" without name, form and modification — that is, so long we do not identify with the body — we remain in the Original state. It is the modification in the Consciousness that assumes numerous forms. Whatever has come out of Original or Unconditioned state is time-bound. To recapitulate, when the vital force has mistakenly identified itself with the body-frame, thoughts, names, concepts, etc., the world of troubles starts. So long the illusory consciousness of names and forms is present, pain and the misery is felt. For the mind or the life force to remain in the Original Unconditioned state while living in the body and in the happenings of the world (Maya) is said to be the very purpose of human life.
- ਮਨੁ ਤਨੁ ਨਿਰਮਲੁ ਸਾਚੁ ਸੁਆਉ ॥: Manu tanu nirmalu saachu suaaou: The mind and body become spotless and pure; this is the true purpose of life (sggs 744).
- ਜਬ ਲਗੁ ਸਾਸੁ ਸਾਸੁ ਮਨ ਅੰਤਰਿ ਤਤੁ ਬੇਗਲ ਸਰਨਿ ਪਰੀਜੈ ॥: Jab lag saas saas man antar tat baygal saran pareejai: So long the breath breathes through the mind deep within, hurry and surrender: false ego (sggs 1325).
- ਮਨੁ ਮੋਤੀ ਜੇ ਗਹਣਾ ਹੋਵੈ ਪਉਣੁ ਹੋਵੈ ਸੂਤ ਧਾਰੀ ॥ ਖਿਮਾ ਸੀਗਾਰੁ ਕਾਮਣਿ ਤਨਿ ਪਹਿਰੈ ਰਾਵੈ ਲਾਲ ਪਿਆਰੀ ॥: Manu motee jay gahnaa hovai pa-un hovai soot Dhaaree...: If the mind is made pure like the pearl and is strung on the thread of the vital breath (performing meditation or Simran), and if the soul-bride adorns her body with the quality of compassion, then she will join the Beloved God (sggs 359).
When the life force is free to "escape" or when "it flows out like a river" in every which direction, it becomes conditioned. Since the mind speaks the language of the conditioned life force, this mind becomes the motive force for all activities and transactions in the world. This conditioned life force, the sense of body consciousness, is the seed of all mischief, because once this conditioned consciousness has arisen then there is the selfish desire for wanting everything. Simply put, that which is conditioned by the bondage of the body, mind, names and forms is the ego personified personality or individuality. It is also called Jeeva. That which is deconditioned from names and forms is called Waheguru, God, Parmaatam, Allah, and so on. This Unconditioned Consciousness is the Substratum of all.
- ਦੇਸੁ ਕਮਾਵਨ ਧਨ ਜੋਰਨ ਕੀ ਮਨਸਾ ਬੀਚੇ ਨਿਕਸੇ ਸਾਸ ॥: Days kamaavan Dhan joran kee mansaa beechay niksay saas: In his desire to acquire land and accumulate wealth, one's breath escapes him (sggs 496).
- ਹਉ ਮੁਆ ਮੈ ਮਾਰਿਆ ਪਉਣੁ ਵਹੈ ਦਰੀਆਉ ॥: So long Jeev is smitten with "Ego", a river (of desires, Trishanaa) flows within (that Jeev). (sggs 1091).
- ਕਾਮ ਕ੍ਰੋਧ ਵਸਿ ਕਰੈ ਪਵਣੁ ਉਡੰਤ ਨ ਧਾਵੈ ॥: Kaam krodh vas karai pavan udant na dhaavai: Lust and anger are brought under control, when the breath does not fly around, wandering restlessly (sggs 1395).
How can we understand and know our Mool? To prepare mankind understand this Truth is the purpose of spirituality or what we call "religion". The spiritual teaching of the Gurbani asks us to make good friend with the vital breath or the ego consciousness; for it is the only true help we have. It is godly because it contains the Ultimate Principle, "Joti-Svaroopa". Because of conditionings, however, at the present moment this life force or ego consciousness is scattered in names and forms, in a thousand different directions. It has thus become manacled. The Gurbani urges us to collect this fragmented consciousness and turn it "inward". This is the life's real aim.
- ਹਉਮੈ ਦੀਰਘ ਰੋਗੁ ਹੈ ਦਾਰੂ ਭੀ ਇਸੁ ਮਾਹਿ ॥: Houmai deeragh rogu hai daaroo bhee isu maahi: Ego is a chronic disease, but it contains its own cure as well (sggs 466).
- ਰੀ ਕਲਵਾਰਿ ਗਵਾਰਿ ਮੂਢ ਮਤਿ ਉਲਟੋ ਪਵਨੁ ਫਿਰਾਵਉ ॥: Ree kalvaar gavaar moodh mat ulto pavan firaavaou: You barbaric brute, with your primitive intellect - reverse your breath and turn it inward (sggs 1123).
This leads to another question: how can one turn the vital breath "inward"? The Gurbani asks us remember the Mool, which we have forgotten with each and every breath, and renounce the love of Maya. By inquiring into the Mool through the Shabad-Vichaar (Self-knowledge, Aatam Giaan...), and by focusing the attention on the Mool, the the light of the Aatmaan or "Joti-Svaroopa" shines forth.
- ਗੁਰਮੁਖਿ ਹਰਿ ਜੀਉ ਸਦਾ ਧਿਆਵਹੁ ਜਬ ਲਗੁ ਜੀਅ ਪਰਾਨ ॥: Gurmukh har jeeou sadaa Dhiaavahu jab lag jeea paraan: By becoming a Gurmukh, meditate (on the Mool), as long as there is the life breath (sggs 1334).
- ਸਾਸਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਧਿਆਇ ਸੋ ਪ੍ਰਭੁ ਤਿਆਗਿ ਅਵਰ ਪਰੀਤਿ ॥: Saas saas Dhiaai so prabh tiaag avar pareet: With each and every breath, meditate on God, and renounce other love (sggs 405).
But what is the meditation? How one is to focus the attention on the vital breath and meditate on the Mool? To sit in meditation or Shabad-Vichaar with body identification is unavailing. Therefore, it should not be the body identification sitting for meditation. Instead, it should be the consciousness or the knowledge of "being" sitting in meditation and meditating on itself. When the mind and the vital force become one and steady in the Supreme Bliss (Anand), all thoughts cease, including the thought that you are sitting in meditation. Thus, when this "I" consciousness, or knowledge of being, or mind or false ego (or whatever names we use) merges in itself, the sense of ego personified individuality disappears and the state of "Sunn-Smaadhi" ensues. This is what the Gurbani calls "Ego is a chronic disease, but it contains its own cure as well" and "O Nanak, through the mind, the mind is satisfied, and then, nothing comes or goes." It is the self meditating on itself, resulting in "I" consciousness unfolding its own Source.
- ਨਾਨਕ ਮਨ ਹੀ ਤੇ ਮਨੁ ਮਾਨਿਆ ਨਾ ਕਿਛੁ ਮਰੈ ਨ ਜਾਇ ॥: Nanak man hee te man maaniya na kish marai na jaayi: O Nanak, through the (Higher) mind, the (lower) mind is satisfied, and then, nothing comes or goes (sggs 514).
- ਮਾਣਕੁ ਮਨ ਮਹਿ ਮਨੁ ਮਾਰਸੀ ਸਚਿ ਨ ਲਾਗੈ ਕਤੁ ॥: Manak man mahi manu maarsee sach na laagai kat: The Divine Jewel within the (Higher) mind subdues the (lower) mind; thus attached to the Truth, it does not wander deluded again (sggs 992)
- ਮਨ ਮਹਿ ਮਨੁ ਉਲਟੋ ਮਰੈ ਜੇ ਗੁਣ ਹੋਵਹਿ ਨਾਲਿ ॥: Man mahi man ulto marai je gun hovahi naal: The (lower) mind turns inward, and merges with the (Higher) mind, when it is with virtue (sggs 935).
- ਸਾਸਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਸਾਲਾਹੇ ॥: Saas saas Nanak saalaahay: With each and every breath, Nanak praises God (sggs 104).
As repeatedly pointed out in the Gurbani, the consequence of the practice of meditation (Shabad Kamaaee...) with each and every breath is that the life force gets pleased or purified, and then it links with the Light of the Moo — the knowledge "I-ness" merges into the Supreme Knowledge or Brahmgiaan. With sufficient abidance in this state one's doubts, concepts, mind, false ego-sense, imaginations, tendencies, attributes, individuality, separateness, etc.,leaves him. All his falsehood, desires, attachments and material love departs. Baabaa Nanak says: "in that state one drinks in the Amrit" or dwells in the state of Immortality. To such a Brahm-Giaanee, whatever happens around him is entertainment. He is that godly principle who has transcended both the life force and the "I" consciousness (false mind or false ego). He is free, living liberated (Jeevanmukta).
- ਭਣਤਿ ਨਾਨਕੁ ਜਨੋ ਰਵੈ ਜੇ ਹਰਿ ਮਨੋ ਮਨ ਪਵਨ ਸਿਉ ਅੰਮ੍ਰਿਤੁ ਪੀਜੈ ॥: Bhanat Nanak jano ravai jay har mano man pavan siou amrit peejai: Says Nanak, if one dwells upon God, in his mind of minds, with his every breath, in that state one drinks in the Amrit (sggs 992).
- ਜੀਉ ਪ੍ਰਾਣ ਤਨੁ ਮਨੁ ਪ੍ਰਭੂ ਬਿਨਸੇ ਸਭਿ ਝੂਠਾ ॥: Jeeou paraan tan man parabhoo binsay sabh jhoothaa: When my soul, breath of life, body and mind abides in the Absolute; all falsehood leaves me (sggs 708).
- ਭਾਹਿ ਬਲੰਦੀ ਵਿਝਵੀ ਧੂਉ ਨ ਨਿਕਸਿਓ ਕਾਇ ॥: Bhaahi balandee vijhvee Dhooou na niksio kaai: The burning fire of life is extinguished, and the smoke of the breath no longer emerges (sggs 19).
- ਪਵਨ ਸੂਤੁ ਸਭੁ ਨੀਕਾ ਕਰਿਆ ਸਤਿਗੁਰਿ ਸਬਦੁ ਵੀਚਾਰੇ ॥: Pavan soot sabh neekaa kari-aa satgur sabad veechaaray: The thread of my breath has been made totally sublime and pure; I contemplate the Satgur's Shabad (sggs 983).
- ਸਾਸਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਹਰਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ॥: Saas saas har naam Dhiaaeeai: With each and every breath, meditate on the Naam (sggs 106).
- ਹਰਿ ਜਪਦਿਆ ਖਿਨੁ ਢਿਲ ਨ ਕੀਜਈ ਮੇਰੀ ਜਿੰਦੁੜੀਏ ਮਤੁ ਕਿ ਜਾਪੈ ਸਾਹੁ ਆਵੈ ਕਿ ਨ ਆਵੈ ਰਾਮ ॥: Har japdiaa khin dhil na keejaee mayree jindurheeay mat ke jaapai saahu aavai ke na aavai raam: Do not hesitate for an instant - meditate on the Self, O my being; who knows whether you will draw another breath (sggs 540).
Therefore, as indicated in the Gurbani, we are what we are looking for. It is all within, "here" and "now". To know That Reality, no outside help or knowledge is needed. All else is simply pointing to That Absolute Factor.
Many of us read the Gurbani (or any other scripture for that matter). So what happens? Many of us do not accept the pointers given in it. Why? Because we read it from the point of view of identification with the body-mind-intellect. We approach it with the quagmire of various types of concepts (Mayaic desires...). The result is we end up not understanding the gist of the Gurbani's spiritual teaching (Gurmat) and secret of its knowledge (Giaan), because the Gurbani talks without such identification or material concepts. For those who have identification with the body, spiritual knowledge has no meaning. The Gurbani time and again reminds us that we are That "Joti-Svaroopa" at this very moment, which witnesses coming and going of "I" consciousness and which is nameless, timeless, spaceless and without identity. But, in ignorance, as body-being, we seek this Truth with form everywhere else but within, leading to all kinds of burdens, pain and suffering. As repeatedly mentioned in the scriptures, what is needed is conviction and understanding to know who one really is. Therefore, to get more and more convinced about the Gurbani's words or spiritual teaching, and to get more understanding about our True Position is the only thing that matters.
- ਗੁਰ ਉਪਦੇਸਿ ਹਰਿ ਹਿਰਦੈ ਵਸਿਓ ਸਾਸਿ ਗਿਰਾਸਿ ਅਪਣਾ ਖਸਮੁ ਧਿਆਈਐ ॥: Gur updesi har hirdai vasio saas giraas apnaa khasam Dhiaaeeai: By following the Gurmat, God is known within the heart; I meditate on Him with every breath and morsel of food (sggs 1270).
- ਸਾਸਨਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਬਲੁ ਪਾਈ ਹੈ ਨਿਹਸਾਸਨਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਧਿਆਵੈਗੋ ॥: Saasan saas saas bal paaee hai nihsaasan naam dhiaavaigo: By His Training (i.e., Gurmat), I find strength with each and every breath; now that I am trained and tamed, I meditate on the Divine Name (sggs 1309).
- ਕੋਟਿ ਜਤਨ ਉਪਾਵ ਮਿਥਿਆ ਕਛੁ ਨ ਆਵੈ ਕਾਮਿ ॥: Kot jatan upaav mithiaa kachh na aavai kaam: Millions of plans, tricks, and efforts are of no use, and serve no purpose (sggs 501).
- ਸਾਸਿ ਸਾਸਿ ਸਿਮਰਹੁ ਗੋਬਿੰਦ ॥ ਮਨ ਅੰਤਰ ਕੀ ਉਤਰੈ ਚਿੰਦ ॥: Saasi saasi simrahu gobind. Mann antar kee utrai chind: With each breath, remember "Gobind" (Mool...). (So that) anxiety within (your) mind be erased (sggs 295).
— T. Singh